[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 25, 1617-1635, March 1, 2020]

Role of kinases in virulence and pathogenesis of protozoan parasite E. Histolytica

Azhar Ahmad2, Shalini Mishra1, Somlata2, Samudrala Gourinath1

1Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India., 2Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Kinome of E. histolytica
4. Transmembrane kinases involved as a receptor
5. Phosphoinositide kinases
6. CAM-like kinases involved in phagocytosis
7. Alpha kinases involved in the virulence of E. histolytica
8. AGC Family Kinases
9. P21 activated kinase family (EhPAK)
10. Role of other kinases in the virulence of E. histolytica
11. Discussion
12. Acknowledgments
13. References

1. ABSTRACT

Protein kinases are known to regulate several cellular processes like metabolism, motility and endocytosis through phosphorylation of specific target proteins which forms a communication system relaying extracellular signals to intracellular milieu for an adaptive response. One of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebiasis and is one of the prominent reason for causing diarrhoea in infants of developing countries, where it remains the third leading cause of deaths in infants(1). The genome of this parasite codes for 331 putative protein kinases which accounts for 3.7% of the proteome. The kinome of the parasite is composed of several conserved and as well as kinase with unusual domain architecture. About one-third of kinome codes for transmembrane kinases (TMK) which is proposed to help the parasite to sense and adapt to the gut environment which is constantly changing. Many kinases are known to be involved in virulence but, the kinome of this important parasite is unexplored. In this review, we present an overview of E. histolytica kinases and their role in amoebic biology understood till now.

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Abbreviations: TMK(Trans-Membrane kinase), GalNAc (N-Acetylgalactosamine), PTK (Protein Tyrosine Kinase), PI (phosphoinositide), PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate), PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate), CAMK (Calmodulin dependent kinase), AK (Alpha Kinase), PAK (p21 Activated Kinase)

Key Words: Protozoan Parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, Kinases, Pathogenesis, Virulence and signalling, Review

Send correspondence to: Samudrala Gourinath, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India, Tel: 91 011-26704513, Fax: 91 011 2674 2516, E-mail: sgourinath@mail.jnu.ac.in