[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 25, 242-269, Jan 1, 2020]

Anti-inflammatory therapy in atherosclerosis

Duygu Kocyigit1, Kadri M Gurses2, Lale Tokgozoglu3

1Cardiology Clinics, Afyonkarahisar Dinar State Hospital, 03400, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, 09010, Aydin, Turkey, 3Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100, Ankara, Turkey

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
    3.1. Anti-inflammatory drugs with low probability to improve cardiovascular outcomes
      3.1.1. Corticosteroids
      3.1.2. Pexelizumab
      3.1.3. Tranilast
      3.1.4. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy
      3.1.5. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors
      3.1.6. Losmapimod
      3.1.7. Salsalate
      3.1.8. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1Ra)
      3.1.9. Methotrexate
    3.2. Anti-inflammatory drugs with probability to improve cardiovascular outcomes
      3.2.1. Colchicine
      3.2.2. Tocilizumab
    3.3. Anti-inflammatory drugs currently being tested in cardiovascular outcome studies
      3.3.1. Canakinumab
      3.3.2. Rituximab
    3.4. Possible future anti-inflammatory drug targets for treatment of atheroclerosis
4. References

1. ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. Although once considered merely as a lipid storage disease, studies indicate the role of inflammation in initiation and progression of atherosclerotic CVD, as well as the development of thrombotic complications. Despite significant advances in treatment of atherosclerosis, there still exists a residual risk for CVD-related morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, the rate of a new event after an index acute coronary syndrome event, such as myocardial ischemia or infarction, in the first three years has been reported to be as high as 20%. In the last decades, inflammation due to apoB-lipoproteins and other traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, is accepted as a new target for CVD prevention. Up to now, several anti-inflammatory drugs have been tested for use in atherosclerosis. This review focuses on the current status of anti-inflammatory drug therapy for atherosclerotic CVD in humans.

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Key Words: Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Human, Clinical Trials, Review

Send correspondence to: Duygu Kocyigit, Cardiology Clinics, Afyonkarahisar Dinar State Hospital, 03400, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, Tel: 0090-272-3536099, Fax: 0090-272-3534017, E-mail: kocyigitduygu@yahoo.com