Urine Indicators

[raw]

* Acid Base Indicators

* Acids and Alkali

* Aging and Senescence

* Amino Acids – Feature

* Amino Acids – Structure

* Amniotic Fluid

* Base units (SI)

* Blood Indicators

* Buffer Mixtures

* Cell Animations

* Cell Image Gallery

* Cell Mentor

* Cell Spnapshots

* Cell Video Archives

* Cerebrospinal Fluid

* Enzymes
* Gastric Fluid

* Gene Nomenclature

* Genetic Code

* Greek Alphabet

* Heart EKGs

* Heart Sounds

* Hematologic Indicators

* Human CDs

* Human Non-CDs

* Ideal Weights and Heights

* Journals

* Libraries

* Mouse Primers

* Nomogram

* Pediatric Reference Values

* Periodic Table
* Physiologic Solutions

* Prefixes

* Restriction Enzymes

* Seminal Fluid Indicators

* SI Derived Units

* Species Abbreviations

* Stool Indicators

* Sweat Indicators
* Synovial Fluid Indicators

* Temperature Conversions

* Tris Buffer

* Tumor Atlas

* Urine Indicators

* Weights and Measures



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































 


TYPICAL REFERENCE INTERVALS

COMPONENT

SYSTEM

CONVENTIONAL UNITS

FACTOR

RECOMMENDED SI UNITS

Acetoacetic acid

Random

Negative


Negative

Acetone

Random

Negative


Negative

Addis count

12 h collection
     
   
WBC and epithelial cells: 1,800,000/12 h

1

1.8 x 106/12h
   
RBC 500,000/12 h

1

0.5 x 106/12h
   
Hyaline casts: <5000/12 h

1

<5.0 x 103/12 h

Albumin

 


 


 


 


Qualitative

Random

Negative


Negative

Quantitative

24 h

15-150 mg/d

0.001

0.015-0.150 g/d

Aldosterone

24 h

2-26 mg/d

2.774

6-72 nmol/d

Alkapton bodies

Random

Negative


Nagative

a


24 h

100-290 mg/d

0.07139

7.1-20.7 mmol/d

d


24 h
     
 
Random

0.1-0.6 mg/dl

76.26

8-46 mmol/L
 
Adult

<o.5 mg/dL

7.626

<38 mmol/L
 
Children

1.5 – 7.5 mg/d
 
11-57 mmol/d

Ammonia nitrogen

24 h

20-70 mEq/d


500-1200 mg/d


1


0.07139


20-70 mmol/d


35.6-85.7 mmol/d


Amylase

2 h

35-260 Somogyi units/h

0.1850

6.5-48.1 U/h

Arsenic

24 h

<50 mg/L

0.01335

<0.67 mmol/L

Ascorbic acid
       
 
Random

1-7 mg/dL

56.78

57-397 mmol/L
 
24 h

>50 mg/d

5.678

>284 mmol/d

Bence Jones protien

Random

Negative


Negative

Beryllium

24 h

< 0.05 mg/d

111.0

<5.555 nmol/d

Bilirubin, qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Blood, occult

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Borate

24 h

<2mg/L

16.44

<32 mmol/L

Calcium

 


 


 


 


Qualitative(Sulkowitch)

Random

1 + turbidity

1

1 + turbidity

Quantitative

Average diet (24 h)

100-240 mg/d

0.02495

2.5-6.0 mmol/d

 


low calcium diet (24 h)

< 150 mg/d

 


 


 


high calcium diet (24 h)

240-300 mg/d

 


 


Catecholamines

Random

< 14 mg/dL

59.11*

<828 nmol/L

 


24 h

<100 mg/d (varies with activity)

5.911*

<591 nmol/d

Epinephrine

 


<10 ng/d

5.458

<55 nmol/d

Norepinephrine

 


<100 ng/d

5.911

<591 nmol/d

Total free catecholamines

 


4-126 mg/d

5.911*

24-745 nmol/d

Total metanephrines

 


0.1-1.6 mg/d

5.458+

0.5-8.7 mmol/d

Chloride

24 h

140-250 mEq/d

1

140-250 nmol/d

Concentration test (Fishberg)

Random–after fluid restriction
   
 

Specific gravity

 


>1.025

1

>1.025

Osmolality

 


>850 mOsm/kg

1

>850 mmol/kg

Copper

24 h

<50 mg/d

0.01574

<0.8 mmol/d

Coproporphyrin

 


 


 


 


 


Random, Adult

3-20 mg/dL

15.27

46-305 nmol/L

 


Adult, 24 hr

50-160 mg/d

1.527

76-244 nmol/d

 


Children, 24 hr

<80 mg/d

 


<122 nmol/d

Creatine

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

<40 mg/d

7.625

<305 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

<100 mg/d


higher in children and during pregnancy



<763 mmol/d


higher in children and during pregnancy


Creatinine

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

20-26 mg/kg/d


1.0-2.0 g/d


8.840


8.840


177-230 mmol/kg/d


8.8-17.7 mmol/d


 


Female, 24 hr

14-22 mg/kg/d


0.8-1.8 g/d


8.840


8.840


124-195 mmol/kg/d


7.1-15.9 mmol/d


Cystine, qualitative

Random

Negative


Negative

Cystine and cysteine

24 h

10-100 mg/d

4.161 (based on cystine)

42-416 mmol/d

Dehydroepiandrosterone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

0.2-2 mg/d

3.467

0.7-6.9 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

0.2-1.8 mg/d

 


0.7-6.2 mmol/d

Diacetic acid

Random

Negative


Negative

Epinephrine

24 h

<20 mg/d

5.458

<109 nmol/d

Estrogens

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

5-18 mg/d

3.468 (based on estriol)

17-62 nmol/d

Total

Female, 24 hr

 


 


 


 


Ovulation

28-100 mg/d

0.003468

97-347 nmol/d

 


Luteal peak

22-80 mg/d

3.468

76-364 nmol/d

 


At menses

4-25 mg/d

3.699

14-87 nmol/d

 


Pregnancy

up to 45,000 mg/d

3.671

up to 156 mmol/d

 


Postmenopausal

up to 10 mg/d

3.468

up to 35 nmol/d

Fractioned

24 h, nonpregnant, midcycle

 


 


 


Estrone(E1)

__

2-25 mg/d

 


7-93 nmol/d

Estradiol (E2)

__

<10 mg/d

 


<37 nmol/d

Estriol(E3)

__

2-30 mg/d

 


7-104 nmol/d

Fat, qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

FIGLU (N-formiminoglutamic acid)

 


 


 


 


 


24 h

<3 mg/d

5.740

<17.2 mmol/d

 


after 15g of L-histidine

4 mg/d

 


23.0 mmol/d

Floride

24 h

<1 mg/d

52.63

<53 mmol/d

Follicle-simulating hormone (FSH)

24 h

 


 


 


 


Adult

4-25 U/L

1

4-25 IU/L

 


Prepubertal

4-30 U/L

1

4-30 IU/L

 


Postmenopausal

40-50 U/L

1

40-50 IU/L

 


Midcycle

2 x baseline

1

2 x baseline

Fructose

24 h

30-65 mg/d

0.005551

0.17-0.36 mmol/d

Glucose

 


 


 


 


Qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Quantitative

24 h

 


 


 


Copper-reducing


Substances


 


0.5-1.5 g/d

1

0.5-1.5 g/d

Total sugars

 


average 250 mg/d

1

average 250 mg/d

Glucose

 


average 130 mg/d

0.005551

average 0.72 mmol/d

Gonadotropins, pituary (FSH and LH)

24 h

10-50 U/L

1

10-50 IU/d

Etiocholanolone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

1.4-5.0 mg/d

3.443

4.8-17.2 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

0.8-4.0 mg/d

 


2.8-13.8 mmol/d

11-Hydroxyandrosterone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

0.1-0.8 mg/d

3.263

0.3-2.6 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

<0.5 mg/d

 


<1.6 mmol/d

11-Hydroxyetiocholanolone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

0.2-0.6 mg/d

3.26

0.7-2.0 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

0.1-1.1 mg/d

 


0.3-3.63 mmol/d

11-Ketoandrosterone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

0.2-1.0 mg/d

3.274

0.7-3.3 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

0.2-0.8 mg/d

 


0.7-2.6 mmol/d

11-Ketoetiocholanolone

 


 


 


 


 


Male, 24 hr

0.2-1.0 mg/d

3.274

0.7-3.3 mmol/d

 


Female, 24 hr

0.2-0.8 mg/d

 


0.7-2.6 mmol/d

Lactose

24 h

14-40 mg/d

2.291

41-117 mmol/d

Lead

24 h

<100 mg/d

0.004826

<0.48 mmol/d

Magnesium

24 h

6.0-8.5 mEq/d

0.5000

3.0-4.3 mmol/d

Melanin, qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Mucin

24 h

100-150 mg/d

1

100-150 mg/d

Muramidase (lysozyme)

24 h

1.3-36 mg/d

1

1.3-36 mg/d

Myoglobin

 


 


 


 


Qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Quantitative

24 h

<4 mg/L

1

<4 mg/L

Osmolality

Random

500-800 mOsm/kg water

1

500-800 mmol/kg

Pentoses

24 h

2-5 mg/kg/d

1

2-5 mg/kg/d

pH

Random

4.6-8.0

1

4.6-8.0

Phenossulfonphthalein (PSP)

Urine timed after 6 mg PSP IV

 


 


 


 


15 min

20-50% dye excreted

0.01

Fraction dye excreted: 0.20-0.50

 


30 min

16-24% dye excreted

 


0.16-0.24

 


60 min

9-17% dye excreted

 


0.09-0.17

 


120 min

3-10% dye excreted

 


0.03-0.10

Phenylpyruvic acid, qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Phosphorus

Random

0.9-1.3 g/d

32.29

29-42 mmol/d

Porphobilinogen

 


 


 


 


Qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Quantitative

24 h

<1.0 mg/d

4.420

4.4 mmol/d

Potassium

24 h

40-80 mEq/d

1

40-80 mmol/d

Pregnancy tests

Concentrated morning specimen

Positive in normal pregnancies or with tumors producing chorionic gonadotropin

__

Positive in normal pregnancies or with tumors producing chorionic gonadotropin

Pregnanediol

24 h

 


 


 


 


Male

<1.5 mg/d

3.120

<4.7 mmol/d

 


Female

1-8 mg/d

3.120

3-25 mmol/d

 


Peak

1 week after ovulation



__

1 week after ovulation

 


Pregnancy

 <50 mg/d


 


 


 


Children

Negative

 


<156 mmol/d


Negative


Pregnanetriol

24 h

 


 


 


 


Male

0.4-2.4 mg/d

2.972

1.2-7.1 mmol/d

 


Female

0.5-2.0 mg/d

 


1.5-5.9 mmol/d


Children

up to 1 mg/d


up to 3 mmol/d

Protein, qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

 


24 h

40-150 mg/d

1

40-150 mg/d

Reducing substances, total

24 h

0.5-1.5 mg/d

1

0.5-1.5 mg/d

Sodium

24 h

75-200 mEq/d

1

75-200 mmol/d

Solids, total

24 h

55-70 g/d


Decreases with age to 30 g/d


__

50-70 g/d


Decreases with age to 30 g/d


Specific gravity

Random

1.016-1.022(normal fluid intake)


1.001-1.035 (range)


1

Relative density (U 20°C/water 20°C)


1.016-1.022(normal fluid intake)


1.001-1.035 (range)


 


 


Sugars (excluding glucose)

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Titratable acidity

24 h

20-50 mEq/d

1

20-50 mmol/d

Urea nitrogen

24 h

6-17 g/d

35.70

214-607 mmol/d

Uric acid

24 h

250-750 mg/d

0.005948

1.5-4.5 mmol/d

Urobilinogen
       
 
2 h

0.3-1.0 Ehrlich units

1

0.3-1.0 U
 
24 h

0.05-2.5 mg/d or 0.5-4.0 Erhlich units/d

1.693


1


0.1-4.2 mmol/d


0.5-4.0 U/d


Uropepsin
       
 
Random

15-45 units/h (Anson)

7.37

111-332 U/h
 
 


24 h


 


1500-5000 units/d (Anson)

 
 


11-37 kU/h


Uroporphyrins

 


 


 


 


Qualitative

Random

Negative

__

Negative

Quantitative

25 h

10-30 mg/d

1.204

12-36 nmol/d

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

24 h

1.5-7.5 mg/d

5.046

7.6-37.9 mmol/d

Volume, total

24 h

600-1600 mL/d

0.001

0.6-1.6 L/d

Zinc

24 h

0.15-1.2 mg/d

15.30

2.3-18.4 mmol/d

[/raw]