Blood Indicators

[raw]

* Acid Base Indicators

* Acids and Alkali

* Aging and Senescence

* Amino Acids – Feature

* Amino Acids – Structure

* Amniotic Fluid

* Base units (SI)

* Blood Indicators

* Buffer Mixtures

* Cell Animations

* Cell Image Gallery

* Cell Mentor

* Cell Spnapshots

* Cell Video Archives

* Cerebrospinal Fluid

* Enzymes
* Gastric Fluid

* Gene Nomenclature

* Genetic Code

* Greek Alphabet

* Heart EKGs

* Heart Sounds

* Hematologic Indicators

* Human CDs

* Human Non-CDs

* Ideal Weights and Heights

* Journals

* Libraries

* Mouse Primers

* Nomogram

* Pediatric Reference Values

* Periodic Table
* Physiologic Solutions

* Prefixes

* Restriction Enzymes

* Seminal Fluid Indicators

* SI Derived Units

* Species Abbreviations

* Stool Indicators

* Sweat Indicators
* Synovial Fluid Indicators

* Temperature Conversions

* Tris Buffer

* Tumor Atlas

* Urine Indicators

* Weights and Measures

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































 

TYPICAL REFERENCE INTERVALS

COMPONENT

SYSTEM

CONVENTIONAL UNITS

FACTOR

RECOMMENDED SI UNITS


Acetoacetic Acid


Qualitative


Quantitative

 


Serum


Serum


 


Negative


0.2-1.0 mg/dL

 



97.95

 


Negative


20-100 mmol/L



Acetone


Qualitative


Quantitative

 


Serum


Serum

 


Negative


0.3-2.0 mg/dL

 



172.95

 


Negative


20-340 m>mol/L



Albumin


Qualitative

 


Serum

 


3.2-4.5 g/dL(salt fractionation)


3.2-5.6 g/dL(electrophoresis)


3.8-5.0 g/dL (dye binding)

 


10

 


32-45 g/L


32-56 g/L


38-50 g/L



Alcohol, ethyl

Serum or Whole Blood

Negative–but presented as mg/dL

0.2171

Negative –but present as mmol/L



Aldolase

Serum


adults


children


newborn

 


3-8 Sibley-Lehninger U/dL at 37 oC


Approximately 2 times adult levels


Approximately 4 times adult levels

 


7.4

 


22-59 mU/L at 37oC


Approximately 2 times adult levels


Approximately 4 times adult levels


a -Amino acid nitrogen

Serum

3.6-7.0 U/dL

0.7139

2.6-5.0 mmol/L


d– Aminolevulinic acid

Serum

0.01-0.03mg/dL

76.26

0.8-2.3mmol/L



Ammonia

Plasma

20-120 mg/dL(diffusion)


40-80 mg/dL(enzymatic method)


12-48 mg/dL(resin method)

0.5872

12-70 m
mol/L


23-47 mmol/L


7-28 mmol/L



Amylase

Serum

16-120 Somogyi units/dL

1.85

30-220 U/L



Argininosuccinate lyase

Serum

0-4 U/dL

10

0-40 U/L



Arsenic++

Whole blood

<7 mg/dL

0.05055

<0.4 mmol/L



Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)

Plasma


Whole blood

0.6-1.6 mg/dL


0.7-2.0 mg/dL

56.78

34-91 mmol/L


40-114 mmol/L



Barbiturates

Serum, Plasma or Whole blood

Negative

Negative



Base excess

Whole blood


Male


Female

 


-3.3 to +1.2 mEq/L


-2.4 to +2.3 mEq/L

 


1

 


-3.3 to +1.2 mmol/L


-2.4 to +2.3 mmol/L



Base, total

Serum

145-160 mEq/L

1

145-160 mmol/L



Bicarbonate

Plasma

21-28 mmol/L

1

21-28 mmol/L



Bile acids

Serum

0.3-3.0 mg/dL

10

3.0-30.0 mg/L



Bilirubin


Direct (conjugated)


Indirect (unconjugated)


Total


Newborns Total

Serum

 


<0.3 mg/dL


0.1-1.0 mg/dL


0.1-1.2 mg/dL


1.0-12.0 mg/dL

 


17.10

 


<5 mmol/L


2-17 mmol/L


2-21 mmol/L


17-205 mmol/L



Blood Gases


PH



Pco2



Po2

 


Whole Blood

Whole Blood

Whole Blood

 


7.38-7.44 (arterial)


7.36-7.41(venous)


35-40mm Hg (arterial)


40-45mm Hg (venous)


95-100mm Hg(arterial)

 


1

0.1333

0.1333

 


7.38-7.44


7.36-7.41


4.7-5.3 kPa


5.3-6.0 kPa


12.7-13.3 kPa



Bromide

Serum

<5 mg/dL

0.125

<0.63 mmol/L



Calcium


Ionized

 


Total

 


Serum

 


Serum

 


4.0-4.8 mg/dL


2.0-2.4 mEq/L


30-58% of total


9.2-11.0 mg/dL


4.6-5.5 mEq/L

 


0.2500


0.5000


0.01


0.2500


0.5000

 


1.00-1.20 mmol/L

0.30-1.58 of total


2.30-2.74 mmol/L



Carbon Dioxide(CO2 content)

Whole Blood (arterial)


Plasma or Serum (arterial)

19-24 mmol/L

21-28 mmol/L



 


1

19-24 mmol/L

21-28 mmol/L



Carbon Dioxide

Whole blood (venous)


Plasma or Serum(venous)

22-26 mmol/L

24-30 mmol/L

1

22-26 mmol/L

24-30 mmol/L



CO2 combining power

Plasma or Serum(venous)

24-30 mmol/L

1

24-30 mmol/L



CO2 partial pressure (Pco2)

Whole Blood (arterial)


Whole Blood (venous)

35-40 mm Hg

40-45 mm Hg

0.1333

4.7-5.3 kPa

5.3-6.0 kPa



Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

Whole Blood (arterial)


Whole Blood (venous)


Plasma (venous)

1.05-1.45 mmol/L

1.15-1.50 mmol/L

1.02-1.38 mmol/L

1

1.05-1.45 mmol/L

1.15-1.50 mmol/L

1.02-1.38bmmol/L



Carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide hemoglobin)

Whole blood


suburban nonsmokers


smokers


heavy smokers

 


<1.5% saturation of hemoglobin


1.5-5.0% saturation


5.0-9.0% saturation

 


0.01



 

Fraction hemoglobin saturated: <0.015


0.015-0.050


0.050-0.090



Carotene beta

Serum

40-200Fg/dL

0.01863

0.73.7 mmol/L



Ceruloplasmin

Serum

23-50 mg/dL

10

230-500 mg/L



Chloride

Serum

95-103 mEq/L

1

95-103mmol/L



Cholesteral


Total

Esters

 


Serum

Serum

 


150-250 mg/dL (varies with diet, sex, and age)


65-75% of total cholesterol

 


0.02586

0.01

 


3.88-6.47 mmol/L

Fraction of total cholesterol: 0.65-0.75



Cholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase)

Erythrocytes


Plasma

0.65-1.3 pH units


0.5-1.3 pH units


8-18 U/L at 37EC

1

1

0.65-1.3 pH unitsŠ


0.5-1.3 pH units


8-18 U/L at 37EC



Citrate

Serum or Plasma

1.7-3.0 mg/dL

52.05

88-156 mmol/L



Copper

Serum or Plasma


Male


Female

 


70-140 Fg/dL


80-155 Fg/dL

 


0.1574

 


11-22 mmol/L


13-24 mmol/L



Cortisol

Plasma


8am-10am


4pm-6pm

 


5-23 Fg/dL


3-13 Fg/dL

 


27.59

 


138-635 nmol/L


83-359 nmol/L



Creatine

Serum or Plasma


Male


Female

 


0.1-0.4 mg/dL


0.2-0.7 mg/dL

 


76.25

 


8-31 mmol/L


15-53 mmol/L



Creatine kinase(CK)

Serum


Male


Female

 


55-170 U/L at 37EC


30-135 U/L at 37EC

 


1


1

 


55-170 U/L at 37EC


30-135 U/L at 37EC



Creatinine

Serum or Plasma

0.6-1.2 mg/dL (adult)


0.3-0.6 mg/dL (children <2y)

88.40

53-106 mmol/L


27-53 mmol/L



Creatinine clearence (endogenous)

Serum or Plasma and Urine


Male


Female

 


 


107-139 mL/min


87-107 mL/min

 


 


0.01667

 


 


1.78-2.32 mL/s


1.45-1.78 mL/s



Cryoglobulins

Serum

Negative

Negative



Electrophoresis, protein


Albumin


Alpha-1


Alpha-2


Beta


Gamma

Albumin


Alpha-1


Alpha-2


Beta


Gamma

Serum

 


 


 


 


Serum

 


 

52-65% of total protien


2.5-5.0% of total protien


7.0-13.0% of total protien


8.0-14.0% of total protien


12.0-22.0% of total protien


Concentration


3.2-5.6 g/dL


0.1-0.4 g/dL


0.4-1.2 g/dL


0.5-1.1 g/dL


0.5-1.6 g/dL

 


0.01


0.01


0.01


0.01


0.01

10

 


Fraction of total protien: 0.52-0.65


0.025-0.05


0.07-0.13


0.08-0.14


0.12-0.22

32-56 gL


1-4 gL


4-12 gL


5-11 gL


5-16 gL



Fats, nuetral (see Triglycerides)

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Fatty Acids


Total (free and esterified)


Free (nonesterified)

 


Serum


Plasma

 


9-15 mmol/L


300-480 FEq/L

 


1


1

 


9-15 mmol/L


300-480 mmol/L



Ferritin


Male


Female

 


 

15-200ng/mL


12-150 ng/mL

 


1


1

 


15-200 mg/L


15-150 mg/L



Fibrinogen

Plasma

200-400 mg/dL

0.01

2.00-4.00 g/L



Fluoride

Whole Blood

<0.05 mg/dL

0.5263

<0.027 mmol/L



Folate

Serum

Erythrocytes

5-25 ng/mL(bioassay)


>2.3 ng/mL (radioassay)


166-640 ng/mL (bioassay)


>140 ng/mL (radioassay)

2.266

11-57 nmol/L


>5nmol/L


376-1450 nmol/L


>317 nmol/L



Galactose

Whole Blood


Adults


Children

 


None


<20 mg/dL

 


 


0.05551

 


None


<1.11 mmol/L



Gamma globulin

Serum

0.5-1.6 g/dL

10

5-16 g/L



Globulins, total

Serum

2.3-3.5 g/dL

10

23-35 g/L



Glucose, fasting

Serum or Plasma


Whole Blood

70-110 mg/dL


60-100 mg/dL

0.05551

3.9-6.1 mmol/L


3.3-5.6 mmol/L



Glucose tolerance


Oral

 


 


 


 


Intravenous

Serum or Plasma


Fasting


30 min


60 min


120 min


180 min


Serum or Plasma


Fasting


30 min


60 min


120 min


180 min

 


70-110 mg/dL


30-60 mg/dL above fasting


20-50 mg/dL above fasting


5-15 mg/dL above fasting


Fasting level or below

70-110mg/dL


Maximum of 250 mg/dL


Significant decrease


Below 120 mg/dL


Fasting level

 


0.05551

 


3.9-6.1 mmol/L


1.7-3.3 mmol/L above fasting


1.1-2.8 mmol/L above fasting


0.3-0.8 mmol/L above fasting


Fasting level or below

3.9-6.1 mmol/L


Maximum of 13.9 mmol/L


Significant decrease


Below 6.7 mmol/L


Fasting level



Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

Erythrocytes

250-5000 units/ 106cells


1200-2000 mIU/mL packed erythrocytes

1


1

250-5000 munits/cell


1200-2000 U/L packed erythrocytes


g-Glutamyltransferase

Serum

5-40 IU/L

1

5-40 U/L at 37EC



Glutathione

Whole Blood

24-37 mg/dL

0.03254

0.78-1.20 mmol/L



Growth hormone

Serum

<10 ng/mL

1

<10mg/L



Guanase

Serum

<3 nmol/mL/min

1

<3 U/L at 37EC



Haptoglobin

Serum

60-270 mg/dL

0.01

0.6-2.7 g/L



Hemoglobin

Serum or Plasma


Qualitative


Quantitative


Whole Blood


Female


Male

 


Negative


0.5-5.0 mg/dL

12.0-16.0 g/dL


13.5-18.0 g/dL

 



10

10



 


 


Negative


5-50 mg/L

120-160 g/L


135-180 g/L


a-Hydoxybutyrate dehydronase

Serum

140-350 U/mL

1

140-350 kU/L



17- Hydroxycorticosteroids

Plasma


Male


Female


After 24 USP


Units of ACTH


I.M.

 


7-19 Fg/dL


9-21 Fg/dL

 


35-55 Fg/dL

 


25.591

 


193-524 nmol/L


248-579 nmol/L

 


966-1517 nmol/L



Immunoglobulins:


IgG


IgA


IgM


IgD


IgE

Serum

 


800-1801 mg/dL


113-563 mg/dL


54-222 mg/dL


0.5-3.0 mg/dL


0.01-0.04 mg/dL

 


0.01

 


10

 


8.0-18.0 g/L


1.1-5.6 g/L


0.5-2.2 g/L


5.0-30.0 mg/L


0.1-0.4 mg/L



Insulin

Plasma


Bioassay


Radioumunoassay

 


11-240 FIU/mL


4-24 FIU/mL

 


7.175++

 


79-1722 pmol/L


29-172 pmol/L



Insulin tolerance (0.1 unit/kg)

Serum


Fasting


30 min


90 min

 


Glucoseof 70-110 mg/dL


Fall to 50% of fasting level


Fasting level

 


0.05551


0.01



 

Glucose of 3.9-6.1 mmol/L


Fall to 0.5 of fasting level


Fasting level



Iron, total

Serum

60-150 Fg/dL

0.1719

10.7-26.9 mmol/L



Iron-binding capacity

Serum

250-400 Fg/dL

0.1719

44.8-71.6mmol/L



Iron Saturation

Serum

20-55%

0.01

Fraction of total iron-biding capacity :


0.20-0.55



Isocitric dehydrogenase

Serum

50-240 units/mL at 25EC


(Wolfson-Williams Ashman units)

0.0166

0.83-4.18 U/L at 25EC



Ketone bodies

Serum

Nagative

Negative



17- Ketosteroids

Plasma

25-125 Fg/dL

34.67W

866-4334 nmol/L



Lactic acid (as lactate)

Whole Blood


Venous


Arterial

 


5-20 mg/dL


3-7 mg/dL

 


0.1110

 


0.6-2.2 mmo/L


0.3-0.8 mmol/L



Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)

Serum

(lactate6pyruvate) 80-120 units at 30EC


pyruvate6lactate)185-640 units at 30EC


lactate6pyruvate) 100-190 U/L at 37EC

0.48

 


 


1

38-62 U/L at 30EC

90-310 U/L at 30EC

100-190 U/L at 37EC



Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes


LD1 (anode)


LD2


LD3


LD4


LD5 (cathode)

Serum

 


 


17-27%


27-37%


18-25%


3-8%


0-5%

 


 


0.01

 

 


Fraction of total LD


0.017-0.27


0.27-0.37


0.18-0.25


0.03 -0.08


0.00-0.05



Lactate Dehydrogenase (heat stable)

Serum

30-60% of total

0.01

Fraction of total LD: 0.30-060



Lactose tolerance

Serum

Serum glucose changes similar to glucose tolerance tests

Serum glucose changes similar to glucose tolerance test



Lead

Whole blood

<50 Fg/dL

0.04826

<2.41 mmol/L



Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)

Serum


Male


Female

 


80-200 U/mL (Goldbarg-Rutenberg)


75-185 U/mL (Goldbarg-Rutenberg)

 


0.24

 


19.2-48.0 U/L


18.0-44.4 U/L



Lipase

Serum

0-1.5 U/mL (Cherry-Crandall)


14-280 mIU/mL

278


1

0-417 U/L


14-280 U/L



Lipids, total


Cholesterol


Triglycerides


Phospholipids


Fatty acids (free)


Phospholipid phosphorus

Serum

400-800 mg/dL


150-250 mg/dL


10-90 mg/dL


150-380 mg/dL


9.0-15.0 mmol/L


8.0-11.0 mg/dL

0.01


0.02586


0.01129**


0.01


1


0.3229

4.00-8.00 g/L


3.88-6.47 mmol/L


0.11-2.15 mmol/L


1.50-3.80 g/L


9.0-15.0 mmol/L


2.58-3.55 mmol/L



Lithium


therapeutic interval

Serum

Negative


0.5-1.4 mEq/L


1

Negative


0.5-1.4 mmol/L



Long-acting thyroid-stimulating hormone (LATS)

Serum

None detected

None detected



 


Luteinizing hormone(LH)

Serum


Male


Female

 


6-30 mIU/mL


Midcycle peak: 3 times baseline value


Premenopausal <30 mIU/mL


Postmenopausal>35 mIU/mL

 


1

 


6-30 IU/L


Midcycle peak: 3 times baseline value


Premenopausal <30 IU/L


Postmenopausal>35 IU/L



Macrogobulins, total

Serum

70-430 mg/dL

0.01

0.7-4.3 g/L



Methemoglobin

Whole Blood

<0.24 g/dL


<1% of total hemoglobin

10


0.01

<2.4 g/L


Fraction of total hemoglobin <0.01



Mucoprotien

Serum

80-200 mg/dL

0.01

0.8-2.0 g/L



Muramidase

Serum

4-13 mg/L

 


 


4-13 mg/L



Myoglobin

Serum

<90 Fg/L

 


 


<90 mg/L



Nonprotien nitrogen (NPN)

Serum or Plasma


Whole Blood

20-35 mg/dL


25-50 mg/dL

0.7139

14.3-25.0 mmol/L


17.8-35.7 mmol/L



5′- Nucleotidase

Serum

0-1.6 units at 37EC

1

0-1.6 units at 37EC



Ornithine carbamyl transferase

Serum

8-20 mIU/mL at 37EC

1

8-20 U/L at 37EC



Osmoality

Serum

280-295 mOsm/kg

1

280-295 mmol/kg



Oxygen


Pressure (Po2)

Content

Saturation

 


Whole Blood (arterial)


Whole Blood (arterial)


Whole Blood (arterial)

 


95-100 mm Hg

15-23 volume %

94-100%

 


0.1333

0.01

 


12.7-13.3 kPa

Volume fraction: 0.15-0.23

Fraction saturated: 0.94-1.00



pH

Whole Blood (arterial)


Whole Blood (venous)


Serum or Plasma (venous)

7.38-7.44

7.36-7.41

7.35-7.45

1

7.38-7.44

7.36-7.41

7.35-7.45



Phenylalanine

Serum


Adults


Newborns (term)

 


<3.0 mg/dL


1.2-3.5 mg/dL

 


60.54

 


<182 mmmol/L


73-212 mmmol/L



Phosphatase


Acid phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase

 


Serum

Serum

 


0.13-0.63 U/L at 37EC


(p-nitrophenylophophate)


20-130 IU/L at 37EC


(p-nitrophenylophophate in AMP buffer)

 


16.67

1

 


2.2-10.5 U/L at 37EC

20-130 U/L at 37EC



Phospholipid phosphorus


see (Lipids, total)

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Phospholipids


see (Lipids, total)

 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Phosphorus, inorganic

Serum


Adults


Children

 


2.3-4.7 mg/dL


4.0-7.0 mg/dL

 


0.3229

 


0.74-1.52 mmol/L


1.29-2.26 mmol/L



Potassium

Plasma

3.8-5.0 mEq/L

1

3.8-5.0 mmol/L



Prolactin

Serum


Female


Male

 


1-25 ng/mL


1-20 ng/mL

 


1

 


1-25 mg/L


1-20 mg/L



Protiens


Total


Albumin


Globulin

Serum

 


6.0-7.8 g/dL


3.2-4.5 g/dL


2.3-3.5 g/dL

 


10

 


60-78 g/L


32-45 g/L


23-35 g/L



Protien fractionation

 


 


See electophoresis

 


 


See electrophoresis



Protoporphyrin

Erythrocytes

15-50 mg/dL

0.01777

0.27-0.89 mmol/L



Pyruvate

Whole Blood

0.3-0.9 mg/dL

113.6

34-102 mmol/L



Salicylates


Therapeutic interval

Serum

Negative


15-30 mg/dL


0.07240

negative


1.08-2.17 mmol/L



Sodium

Plasma

136-142 mEq/L

1

136-142 mmol/L



Sulfate, inorganic

Serum

0.2-1.3 mEq/L


0.9-6.0 mg/dL as SO4

0.5


0.1042

0.10-0.65 mmol/L


0.09-0.63 mmol/L as SO4



Sulfhemoglobin

Whole Blood

Negative

Negative



Sulfonamides

Serum or Whole Blood

Negative

Negative



Testosterone

Serum or Plasma


Male


Female

 


300-1200 ng/dL


30-95 ng/dL

 


0.03467

 


10.4-41.6nmol/L


1.0-3.3 nmol/L



Thiocyanate

Serum

Negative

Negative



Thyroid hormone tests


Thyroxine, total (T4)


Thyroxine, free (FT4)


T3 resin uptake


Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)


Thyrotropin (TSH)


Triiodothyronine (T3)

Serum

 


 


Serum

Serum

 


5.5-12.5 Fg/dL


0.9-2.3 ng/dL


25-38 relative % uptake


10-26 Fg/dL

0.5-5 FIU/mL


80-200 mg/dL

 


12.87


12.87


0.01


10

 


0.0154

 


17-161 nmol/L


12-30 pmol/L


Relative uptake fraction: 0.25-0.38


100-260 mg/L

0.5-5 mIU/mL


1.23-3 of nmol/L



Transferasis


Aspartate amino transferase (AST or SGOT)


Alanine amino transferase(ALT or SGPT)


Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)

 


Serum

 


Serum

 


 


 


 


8-33 U/L at 37EC

 


4-36 U/L at 37EC

 


5-40 IU/L 37EC

 


1

 


1

 


1

 


8-33 U/L at 37EC

 


4-36 U/L at 37EC

 


5-40 IU/L 37EC



Triglycerides

Serum

10-190 mg/dL

0.01129**

0.11-2.15 mmol/L



Troponin I

Serum

0-0.6 mg/ml

 


 


0-0.6 mg/L



Troponin T

Serum

0-0.1 Fmg/L

 


 


0-0.1 mg/L



Urea nitrogen

Serum

8-23 mg/dL

0.357

2.9-8.2 mmol/L



Urea clearance


Maximum clearance


Standard clearance

Serum and Urine

 


64-99 mL/min


41-65 mL/min, or more than 75% of normal clearance

 


0.01667

 


1.07-1.65 L/s


0.68-1.08 L/s or more than 0.75 of normal clearance



Uric acid

Serum


Male


Female

 


4.0-8.5 mg/dL


2.7-7.3 mg/dL

 


0.05948

 


0.24-0.51 mmol/L


0.16-0.43 mmol/L



Vitamin A

Serum

15-60 Fg/dL

0.03491

0.52-2.09mmol/L



Vitamin A tolerance

Serum


Fasting 3h or 6h after 5000 units Vitamin A/kg


24h

 


15-60 Fg/dL

200-600 Fg/dL


Fasting values or slightly above

 


0.03491

 


 


0.52-2.09mmol/L

6.98-20.95 mmol/L


Fasting values or slightly above



Vitamin B12

Serum

160-950 pg/ml

0.7378

118-701 pmol/L



Unsaturated vitamin B12 -binding capacity

Serum

1000-2000 pg/ml

0.7378

738-1475 pmol/L



Vitamin C

Plasma

0.6-1.6 mg/dL

56.78

34-91 mmol/L



Xylose absorption

Serum


Normal


In malabsorbtion

 


25-40 mg/dL between 1 and 2h


Maximum approximately 10 mg/dL


Dose: adult 25 g D-xylose


Children 0.5 g D-xylose/kg

 


0.06661

 


1.67-2.66 mmol/L between 1 and 2 h


Maximum approximately 0.67 mmol/L



Zinc

Serum

50-150 Fg/dL

0.1530

7.7-23.0 mmol/L

[/raw]