[Frontiers in Bioscience S5, 167-180, January 1, 2013]

Experimental advances in understanding allergic airway inflammation

Christine M. Deppong1, Jonathan M. Green2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8052, St. Louis, MO 63110, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave, Box 8052, St Louis, MO 63110


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Chemokines and Chemoattractants in T cell Migration into the Lung
4. T Lymphocyte Inhibitory Receptors and Allergic Airway Inflammation
4.1. CTLA4
4.2. PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1
4.3. BTLA and HVEM
5. Regulatory T cells and Allergic Airway Inflammation
5.1. Regulatory T cells in murine models of allergic airway inflammation
5.2. Regulatory T cells in human asthma
6. Conclusion
7. Acknowledgements
8. References


Asthma is largely an inflammatory disease, with the development of T cell mediated inflammation in the lung following exposure to allergen or other precipitating factors. Currently, the major therapies for this disease are directed either at relief of bronchoconstriction (ie beta-agonists) or are non-specific immunomodulators (ie, corticosteroids). While much attention has been paid to factors that regulate the initiation of an inflammatory response, chronic inflammation may also be due to defects in regulatory mechanisms that limit or terminate immune responses. In this review, we explore the elements controlling both the recruitment of T cells to the lung and their function. Possibilities for future therapeutic intervention are highlighted.