[Frontiers in Bioscience S5, 39-71, January 1, 2013]

Point-of-care biosensor system

Arvind Sai Sarathi Vasan1, Dinesh Michael Mahadeo1, Ravi Doraiswami1, Yunhan Huang1, Michael Pecht1,2

1Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA, 2Center for Prognostics and System Health Management, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Elements of future POC systems
4. MEMS for biosensing
4.1. Biosensors for POC technologies
4.2. Biosensor classification
4.3. Label-free detection techniques using BioMEMS sensors
4.3.1. Surface plasmon resonance
4.3.2. BioMEMS microcantilever
4.3.3. Quartz crystal microbalance
4.3.4. Electrochemical biosensors
4.4. Lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care testing
5. Wireless biosensors
5.1. Wireless biosensor architecture
5.2. POC wireless system model and architecture
5.3. WBAN infrastructure
6. Prognostics in POC applications
6.1. Prognostic approaches for devices and systems
6.1.1. Prognostic approaches
6.1.2. Fusion prognostics
6.1.3. System prognostics
6.2. Prognosis of health condition
6.3. Survival analysis
7. Existing challenges in POC systems
7.1. Biocompatibility and sensor packaging
7.2. Wireless operation
7.3. Security
7.4. Power restrictions
7.5. Standards and rules
8. Discussion
9. Acknowledgements 10. References


Point-of-care biosensor systems can potentially improve patient care through real-time and remote health monitoring. Over the past few decades, research has been conducted in the field of biosensors to detect patterns of biomarkers and provide information on their concentration in biological samples for robust diagnosis. In future point-of-care applications, requirements such as rapid label-free detection, miniaturized sensor size, and portability will limit the types of biosensors that can be used. This paper reviews label-free detection techniques using Biological MicroElectroMechanical Systems as a potential candidate for point-of-care biosensing applications. Furthermore, detailed surveys have been carried out on wireless networking schemes applicable for a point-of-care environment and on prognostic techniques that will enable decision-support services. This paper concludes by providing a list of challenges that must be resolved before realizing biosensor systems for next-generation point-of-care applications.