[Frontiers in Bioscience E5, 109-118, January 1, 2013]

[Frontiers in Bioscience E5, 109-118, January 1, 2013]

Obesity-associated endometrial and cervical cancers

Wenyi Gu1, Chen Chen2, Kong-Nan Zhao3,4

1Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4109, Australia, 2School of Biomedical Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4109, Australia, 3Institute of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, PR China, 4UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, QLD, 4029, Australia


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Obesity (diabetes) and endometrial cancer
3.1. Links between obesity and endometrial cancers
3.2. Mechanisms of obesity-associated endometrial cancer
4. Obesity and HPV-caused gynecological cancers
4.1. Links between diabetes (obesity) and HPV-caused cancers
4.2. Lifestyle factors, obesity and HPV-caused cancers
4.3. Mechanisms of obesity-associated with HPV-caused cancers
5. Conclusion
6. References


Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity (body mass index-BMI>30) and overweight (BMI>25) directly associated with risk of many cancers. The association of obesity with cancer risks may be explained by the alterations in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, production of specific proteins and cytokines, adipose related inflammatory reactions, and genetic factors. This review aims to illustrate the link between obesity and occurrence and prognosis of endometrial and cervical cancers. Convincing scientific evidence shows that nutrition and lifestyle factors initiate the development of obesity with excessive adipose tissues, which trigger production of hormones, cytokines and other factors to promote growth of cancer cells. Obese women with either endometrial or cervical cancer, especially in postmenopausal period, have shown a significantly higher mortality. This is mainly due to that the obese women are more vulnerable in cancer occurrence and they are more likely to miss routine cancer screening, putting them at a greater risk for delayed diagnosis of these cancers and deteriorate prognosis. Thus, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to this more vulnerable group of women.