[Frontiers in Bioscience 18, 650-664, January 1, 2013]

Serine protease and ovarian paracrine factors in regulation of ovulation

Yi-Xun Liu1, Xi-Ming Liu2, Liang-Fang Nin2, Lei Shi2, Su-Ren Chen1

1State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China, 2Changsha Reproductive Medicine Hospital, Hunan, Changsha 410205, China


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Regulation of oocyte maturation
3.1. Tissue plasmonogen activator in oocyte and its regulation
3.2. Role of epidermal growth factor-like growth factors in regulation of oocyte maturation
3.3. Progesterone and its receptors in regulation of oocyte maturation
3.4. Local autocrine/paracrine regulation of oocyte maturation
4. Plasminogen activator system in regulation of follicle rupture
4.1. Ovulation requires ovarian matrix degradation
4.2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in ovary
4.3. Coordinated expression of tPA and PAI-1 in ovary induces ovulation in rat and rhesus monkey
4.4. GnRH and FSH stimulate oocyte and GC tPA activity and induce ovulation
4.5. VIP, forskolin, cAMP, PMA stimulate GC tPA activity and induce ovulation
4.6. Compounds which decrease tPA and/or increase PAI-1 expression inhibit ovulation
4.7. Serine proteases in regulation of ovulation in various other species
5. Matrix metalloproteinase in regulation of ovulation
6. Signaling involved in ovulation
7. Perspective
8. Acknowledgement
9. References


The controlled target extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation generated by serine protease and regulated by serine protease inhibitor and ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors is an event that affects a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes in the ovary. Evidence cumulated in the past decade clearly showed that the hormone-induced coordinated expression of the tissue-type PA (tPA) produced mainly by granulosa cells and oocyte, and its inhibitor PAI-1 secreted by theca cells in the preovulatory follicles may be responsible for a controlled and directed proteolysis leading to the rupture of selected follicles in the rat, monkey and other mammals. In recent years increasing evidence further demonstrated that oocyte maturation and ovulation may also be modulated by other serine protease and inhibitor, as well as endogenously- produced ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors. Thus, it is important to identify the interrelationship between the serine protease system and the multiple factors, and to know how they regulate the ovarian physiological and pathological processes during oocyte maturation and ovulation.