[Frontiers in Bioscience 18, 145-164, January 1, 2013]

Aromatic amines: use in azo dye chemistry

Harold S. Freeman

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8301, USA


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. Structural nature
2.2. Formation
3. Properties
3.1. Chemical
3.2. Azo dye formation
3.3. Genotoxicity
4. Influence on dye properties
4.1. Color
4.2. Coloration (dye-polymer affinity)
4.3. Technical properties
4.3.1. Wet fastness
4.3.2. Light fastness
4.3.3. Ozone fastness
5. Summary
6. Acknowledgement
7. References


This chapter provides an overview of the chemical structures and properties of aromatic amines and their role in the development and utility of azo dyes. Approaches to the design of environmentally benign alternatives to genotoxic primary aromatic amines, as azo dye precursors, are included.