[Frontiers in Bioscience 17, 1020-1034, January 1, 2012]

Bacterial chromosome segregation

Christophe Possoz1, Ivan Junier2,3, Olivier Espeli1

1Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CGM-CNRS-UPR3404, Avenue de la terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France, 2iSSB, Institute of Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of Evry, Genopole, Campus 1, Genavenir 6, 5 rue Heny Desbrueres, 91030 Evry cedex, France, 3Institut des systemes complexes, 57-59 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Global chromosome positioning
4. Intra nucleoid organization
4.1 .OriC and the Terminus regions
42. Replichores and macrodomains
5. Sister chromatid cohesion
6. Kinetics of chromosome segregation and organization
7. Biophysics of chromosome segregation
8. The players in chromosome segregation
8.1 .Partitioning complexes
8.2. The influence of replication on segregation
8.3. Transcription, Translation and membrane anchoring
8.4. MukB /SMC and MatP provide anchoring and structuring mechanisms
8.5. FtsK: specialized segregation machinery
8.6. Determinants for sister chromatid cohesion
9. Conclusions and future directions
10. Acknowledgements
11. References


Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.