[Frontiers in Bioscience 1, d59-71, March 1, 1996]


Evan T. Keller, William B. Ershler, and Chawnshang Chang

The Institute on Aging and the Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Received 01/16/96; Accepted 02/22/96; On-line 03/01/96


1. C. Chang, J. Kokontis & S. Liao: Molecular cloning of human and rat cDNA encoding the androgen receptor. Science 240, 324-326 (1988)

2. D. B. Lubahn, T. R. Brown, J. A. Simental, H. N. Higgs, C. J. Migeon, W. M. Wilson & F. S. French: Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 9534-9538 (1989)

3. C. Chang, J. Kokontis & S. T. Liao: Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequences of human and rat androgen receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85, 7211-7215 (1988)

4. W. D. Tilley, M. Marcelli, J. D. Wilson & M. J. McPhaul: Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 327-331 (1989)

5. C. Chang, C. Wang, H. F. DeLuca, T. K. Ross & C. C. Shih: Characterization of human androgen receptor overexpressed in the baculovirus system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 5946-50 (1992)

6. G. Jenster, H. A. van der Korput, C. van Vroonhoven, T. H. van der Kwast, J. Trapman & A. O. Brinkmann: Domains of the human androgen receptor involved in steroid binding, transcriptional activation, and subcellular localization. Mol Endocrinol 5, 1396-404 (1991)

7. N. L. Chamberlain, E. D. Driver & R. L. Miesfeld: The length and location of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the androgen receptor N-terminal domain affect transactivation function. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 3181-6 (1994)

8. W. W. He, J. K. Lindzey, J. L. Prescott, M. V. Kumar & D. J. Tindall: The androgen receptor in the testicular feminized (Tfm) mouse may be a product of internal translation initiation. Receptor 4, 121-34 (1994)

9. M. J. McPhaul, M. Marcelli, W. D. Tilley, J. E. Griffin, R. F. Isidro-Gutierrez & J. D. Wilson: Molecular basis of androgen resistance in a family with a qualitative abnormality of the androgen receptor and responsive to high-dose androgen therapy. J Clin Invest 87, 1413-21 (1991)

10. J. A. Simental, M. Sar, M. V. Lane, F. S. French & E. M. Wilson: Transcriptional activation and nuclear targeting signals of the human androgen receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 510-8 (1991)

11. P. De Vos, F. Claessens, L. Celis, B. Peeters, W. Rombauts, W. Heyns & G. Verhoeven: Nuclear extracts enhance the interaction of fusion proteins containing the DNA-binding domain of the androgen and glucocorticoid receptor with androgen and glucocorticoid response elements. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 48, 317-23 (1994)

12. P. De Vos, F. Claessens, J. Winderickx, P. Van Dijck, L. Celis, B. Peeters, W. Rombauts, W. Heyns & G. Verhoeven: Interaction of androgen response elements with the DNA-binding domain of the rat androgen receptor expressed in Escherichia coli. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 3439-43 (1991)

13. M. Marcelli, S. Zoppi, P. B. Grino, J. E. Griffin, J. D. Wilson & M. J. McPhaul: A mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene causes complete testicular feminization in a patient with receptor-positive androgen resistance. J Clin Invest 87, 1123-6 (1991)

14. I. Mowszowicz, H. J. Lee, H. T. Chen, C. Mestayer, M. C. Portois, S. Cabrol, P. Mauvais-Jarvis & C. Chang: A point mutation in the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene causes complete androgen insensitivity in two siblings with receptor-positive androgen resistance. Mol Endocrinol 7, 861-9 (1993)

15. C. A. Quigley, B. A. J. Evans, J. A. Simental, K. B. Marscheke, S. M., D. B. Lubahn, P. Davies, L. A. Hughes, E. M. Wilson & F. S. French: Complete androgen insensitivity due to deletion of exon c of the androgen receptor gene highlights the functional importance of the second zinc finger of the androgen receptor in vivo. Mol Endocrinol 6, 1103-1112 (1992)

16. S. Zoppi, M. Marcelli, J. P. Deslypere, J. E. Griffin, J. D. Wilson & M. J. McPhaul: Amino acid substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of the human androgen receptor are a frequent cause of receptor-binding positive androgen resistance. Mol Endocrinol 6, 409-15 (1992)

17. Z. X. Zhou, M. Sar, J. A. Simental, M. V. Lane & E. M. Wilson: A ligand-dependent bipartite nuclear targeting signal in the human androgen receptor. Requirement for the DNA-binding domain and modulation by NH2-terminal and carboxyl-terminal sequences. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 13115-23 (1994)

18. J. A. Simental, M. Sar & E. M. Wilson: Domain functions of the androgen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 43, 37-41 (1992)

19. G. Jenster, J. Trapman & A. O. Brinkmann: Nuclear import of the human androgen receptor. Biochem J 293, 761-8 (1993)

20. T. Nemoto, Y. Ohara-Nemoto, S. Shimazaki & M. Ota: Dimerization characteristics of the DNA- and steroid-binding domains of the androgen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 50, 225-33 (1994)

21. C. I. Wong, Z. X. Zhou, M. Sar & E. M. Wilson: Steroid requirement for androgen receptor dimerization and DNA binding. Modulation by intramolecular interactions between the NH2-terminal and steroid-binding domains. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268, 19004-12 (1993)

22. P. J. Kallio, J. J. Palvimo, M. Mehto & O. A. Janne: Analysis of androgen receptor-DNA interactions with receptor proteins produced in insect cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 11514-22 (1994)

23. A. O. Brinkmann & J. Trapman: Androgen receptor mutants that affect normal growth and development. Cancer Surveys 14, 95-111 (1992)

24. M. J. McPhaul, M. Marcelli, S. Zoppi, J. E. Griffin & J. D. Wilson: Genetic basis of endocrine disease. 4. The spectrum of mutations in the androgen receptor gene that causes androgen resistance. J Clinical Endocrinol Metab 76, 17-23 (1993)

25. J. Veldscholte, C. Ris-Stalpers, G. G. Kuiper, G. Jenster, C. Berrevoets, E. Claassen, H. C. van Rooij, J. Trapman, A. O. Brinkmann & E. Mulder: A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 173, 534-40 (1990)

26. C. Ris-Stalpers, M. C. T. Verleun-Mooijman, J. Trapman & A. O. Brinkmann: Threonine on amino acid postion 868 in the human androgen receptor is essential for androgen binding specificity and functional activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196, 173-180 (1993)

27. M. Marcelli, W. D. Tilley, S. Zoppi, J. E. Griffin, J. D. Wilson & M. J. McPhaul: Androgen resistance associated with a mutation of the androgen receptor at amino acid 772 (Arg----Cys) results from a combination of decreased messenger ribonucleic acid levels and impairment of receptor function. J Clinical Endocrinol Metab 73, 318-25 (1991)

28. H. P. Gerber, K. Seipel, O. Georgiev, M. Hofferer, M. Hug & S. Rusconi: Transcriptional activation modulated by homopolymeric glutamine and proline stretches. Science 263, 808-811 (1994)

29. J. A. Gustafsson & A. Pousette: Demonstration and partial characterization of cytosol receptors for testosterone. Biochemistry 14, 3094-3101 (1975)

30. D. A. Husmann, C. M. Wilson, M. J. McPhaul, W. D. Tilley & J. D. Wilson: Antipeptide antibodies to two distinct regions of the androgen receptor localize the receptor protein to the nuclei of target cells in the rat and human prostate. Endocrinology 126, 2359-68 (1990)

31. W. D. Tilley, S. S. Lim-Tio, D. J. Horsfall, J. O. Aspinall, V. R. Marshall & J. M. Skinner: Detection of discrete androgen receptor epitopes in prostate cancer by immunostaining: measurement by color video image analysis. Cancer Res 54, 4096-102 (1994)

32. H. Takeda, G. Chodak, S. Mutchnik, T. Nakamoto & C. Chang: Immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptors with mono- and polyclonal antibodies to androgen receptor. J Endocrinol 126, 17-25 (1990)

33. C. Chang, C. Whelen, T. Popovich, J. Kokontis & S. Liao: Fusion proteins containing androgen receptor sequences and their use in the production of poly- and monoclonal anti-androgen receptor antibodies. Endocrinology 125, 1097-1099 (1989)

34. P. J. Janssen, A. O. Brinkmann, W. J. Boersma & T. H. van der Kwast: Immunohistochemical detection of the androgen receptor with monoclonal antibody F39.4 in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded human tissues after microwave pre-treatment. J Histochem Cytochem 42, 1169-1175 (1994)

35. D. B. Lubahn, D. R. Joseph, P. M. Sullivan, H. F. Willard, F. S. French & E. M. Wilson: Cloning of the human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240, 327-330 (1988)

36. L. Fischer, D. Catz & D. Kelley: An androgen receptor mRNA isoform associated with hormone-induced cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 8254-8258 (1993)

37. L. H. Burgess & R. J. Handa: Hormonal regulation of androgen receptor mRNA in the brain and anterior pituitary gland of the male rat. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 19, 31-38 (1993)

38. W. J. Young, E. B. Roecker, R. Weindruch & C. Chang: Quantitation of androgen receptor mRNA by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Endocrine J 2, 321-329 (1994)

39. H. Takeda & C. Chang: Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization analysis of androgen receptor expression during the development of the mouse prostate gland. J Endocrinol 129, 83-9 (1991)

40. D. A. Husmann, M. J. McPhaul & J. D. Wilson: Androgen receptor expression in the developing rat prostate is not altered by castration, flutamide, or suppression of the adrenal axis. Endocrinology 128, 1902-6 (1991)

41. P. Henttu, S. S. Liao & P. Vihko: Androgens up-regulate the human prostate-specific antigen messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), but down-regulate the prostatic acid phosphatase mRNA in the LNCaP cell line. Endocrinol 130, 766-72 (1992)

42. V. E. Quarmby, W. G. Yarbrough, D. B. Lubahn, F. S. French & E. M. Wilson: Autologous down-regulation of androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid. Mol Endocrinol 4, 22-28 (1990)

43. H. Takeda, T. Nakamoto, J. Kokontis, G. W. Chodak & C. Chang: Autoregulation of androgen receptor expression in rodent prostate: Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis.Biochem Biophys Res Comm 177, 488-496 (1991)

44. P. C. Supakar, C. S. Song, M. H. Jung, M. A. Slomczynska, J. Kim, R. L. Vellanoweth, B. Chatterjee & A. K. Roy: A novel regulatory element associated with age-dependent expression of the rat androgen receptor gene. J Biol Chem 268, 26400-26408 (1993)

45. H. Nakagama, T. Gunji, S. Ohnishi, T. Kaneko, T. Ishikawa, R. Makino, J. Shiga, F. Takaku & M. Imawari: Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatoma cell lines. Hepatology 14, 99-102 (1991)

46. E. Rajpert-DeMeyts & N. E. Skakkebaek: Immunohistochemical identification of androgen receptors in germ cell neoplasia. J Endocrinol 135, R1-R4 (1992)

47. S. Chadha, B. R. Rao, B. J. Slotman, C. C. van Vroonhoven & T. H. van der Kwast: An immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen and progesterone receptors in ovarian tumors. Human Pathol 24, 90-95 (1993)

48. L. X. Shan, M. C. Rodriguez & O. A. Janne: Regulation of androgen receptor protein and mRNA concentrations by androgens in rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicles and in human hepatoma cells. Mol Endocrinol 4, 22-28 (1990)

49. D. A. Wolf, T. Herzinger, H. Hermeking, D. Blaschke & W. Horz: Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of human androgen receptor expression by androgen. Mol Endocrinol 7, 924-936 (1993)

50. M. Kaufman, L. Pinsky & R. Feder-Hollander: Defective up-regulation of the androgen receptor in human androgen insensitivity. Nature 293, 735-737 (1981)

51. N. F. Gonzalez-Cadavid, R. S. Swerdloff, C. A. Lemmi & J. Rajfer: Expression of the androgen receptor gene in rat penile tissue and cells during sexual maturation. Endocrinol 129, 1671-1678 (1991)

52. G. Pergola, X. Xu, S. Yang, R. Giorgino & P. Bjorntorp: Up-regulation of androgen receptor binding in male rat fat pad adipose precursor cells exposed to testosterone: study in a whole cell binding assay system. J Steroid Biochem 37, 553-558 (1990)

53. J. A. Ruizeveld de Winter, W. M. van Weerden, P. W. Faber, G. J. van Steenbrugge, A. O. Brinkmann & T. H. van der Kwast: Regulation of androgen receptor expression in the human hetero-transplantable prostate carcinoma PC-82. Endocrinol 131, 3045-3050 (1992)

54. A. Krongrad, C. M. Wilson, J. D. Wilson, D. R. Allman & M. J. McPhaul: Androgen increases androgen receptor protein while decreasing receptor mRNA in LNCaP cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 76, 79-88 (1991)

55. A. Mizokami, H. Saiga, T. Matsui, T. Mita & A. Sugita: Regulation of androgen receptor by androgen and epidermal growth factor in a human prostatic cancer cell line, LNCaP. Endocrinologia Japonica 39, 235-243 (1992)

56. B. M. Sanborn, L. A. Caston, C. Chang, S. Liao, R. Speller, L. D. Porter & C. Y. Ku: Regulation of androgen receptor mRNA in rat Sertoli and peritubular cells. Biol Repro 45, 634-41 (1991)

57. E. Reiter, P. Bonnet, B. Sente, D. Dombrowicz, J. Level, J. Closset & G. Hennen: Growth hormone and prolactin stimulate androgen receptor, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor levels in the prostate of immature rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol 88, 77-87 (1992)

58. P. Henttu & P. Vihko: Growth factor regulation of gene expression in the human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP. Cancer Res 53, 1051-8 (1993)

59. R. E. Hall, W. D. Tilley, M. J. McPhaul & R. L. Sutherland: Regulation of androgen receptor gene expression by steroids and retinoic acid in human breast-cancer cells. Int J Cancer 52, 778-784 (1992)

60. P. W. Faber, H. C. J. van Rooij, H. A. G. M. van der Korput, W. M. Baarends, A. O. Brinkmann, J. A. Grootegoed & J. Trapman: Characterization of the human androgen receptor transcription unit. J Biol Chem 266, 10743-10749 (1991)

61. W. D. Tilley, M. Marcelli & M. J. McPhaul: Expression of the human androgen receptor gene utilizes a common promoter in diverse human tissues and cell lines. J Biol Chem 265, 13776-13781 (1990)

62. P. W. Faber, H. C. J. van Rooij, H. J. Schipper, A. O. Brinkmann & J. Trapman: Two different, overlapping pathways of transcription initiation are active on the TATA-less human androgen receptor promoter. J Biol Chem 268, 9296-9301 (1993)

63. A. Mizokami, S. Yeh & C. Chang: Identification of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element and other cis-acting elements in the human androgen receptor gene promoter. Mol Endocrinol 8, 77-88 (1994)

64. L. J. Blok, A. P. N. Themmen, A. H. F. M. Peters, J. Trapman, W. M. Baarends, J. W. Hoogerbrugge & J. A. Grootegoed: Transcriptional regulation of androgen receptor gene expression in Sertoli cells and other cell types. Mol Cell Endocrinol 88, 153-164 (1992)

65. J. Lindzey, M. Grossmann, M. V. Kumar & D. J. Tindall: Regulation of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse androgen receptor gene by cAMP and androgen. Mol Endocrinol 7, 1530-1540 (1993)

66. P. C. Supakar, M. H. Jung, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee & A. K. Roy: Nuclear factor kB functions as a negative regulator for the rat androgen receptor gene and NF-kB activity increases during the age-dependent desensitization of the liver. J Biol Chem 270, 837-842 (1995)

67. A. Mizokami & C. Chang: Induction of translation by the 5'-untranslated region of human androgen receptor mRNA. J Biol Chem 269, 25655-25659 (1994)

68. P. K. Siiteri & J. D. Wilson: Testosterone formation and metabolism during male sexual differentiation in the human embryo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38, 113-125 (1974)

69. J. Imperato-McGinley: 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. Current Therapy in Endocrinology & Metabolism 5, 351-4 (1994)

70. J. Imperato-McGinley, M. Miller, J. D. Wilson, R. E. Peterson, C. Shackleton & D. C. Gajdusek: A cluster of male pseudohermaphrodites with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency in Papua New Guinea. Clinical Endocrinology 34, 293-8 (1991)

71. J. Imperato-McGinley, R. S. Sanchez, J. R. Spencer, B. Yee & E. D. Vaughan: Comparison of the effects of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the antiandrogen flutamide on prostate and genital differentiation: dose-response studies. Endocrinology 131, 1149-56 (1992)

72. E. M. Wilson & F. S. French: Binding properties of androgen receptors: evidence for identical receptors in rat testis, epididymis and prostate. J Biol Chem 251, 5620-5629 (1976)

73. P. B. Grino, J. E. Griffin & J. D. Wilson: Testosterone at high concentrations interacts with the human androgen receptor similarly to dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology 126, 1165-72 (1990)

74. Z.-X. Zhou, M. V. Lane, J. A. Kemppainen, F. S. French & E. M. Wilson: Specificity of ligand-dependent androgen receptor stabilization: Receptor domain interactions influence ligand dissociation and receptor stability. Mol Endocrinol 9, 208-218 (1995)

75. V. A. Randall: Androgens and human hair growth. Clin Endocrinol 40, 439-57 (1994)

76. M. B. Hodgins, R. Choudhry, G. Parker, R. F. Oliver, C. A. Jahoda, A. P. Withers, A. O. Brinkmann, T. H. van der Kwast, W. J. Boersma, K. M. Lammers & a. et: Androgen receptors in dermal papilla cells of scalp hair follicles in male pattern baldness. Annals New York Acad Sci 642, 448-51 (1991)

77. R. Choudhry, M. B. Hodgins, T. H. Van der Kwast, A. O. Brinkmann & W. J. Boersma: Localization of androgen receptors in human skin by immunohistochemistry: implications for the hormonal regulation of hair growth, sebaceous glands and sweat glands. J Endocrinol 133, 467-75 (1992)

78. V. A. Randall, M. J. Thornton & A. G. Messenger: Cultured dermal papilla cells from androgen-dependent human hair follicles (e.g. beard) contain more androgen receptors than those from non-balding areas of scalp. J Endocrinol 133, 141-7 (1992)

79. M. E. Sawaya: Biochemical mechanisms regulating human hair growth. Skin Pharmacol 7, 5-7 (1994)

80. G. R. Cunha, E. T. Alarid, T. Turner, A. A. Donjacour, E. L. Boutin & B. A. Foster: Normal and abnormal development of the male urogenital tract. Role of androgens, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, and growth factors. J Andrology 13, 465-75 (1992)

81. G. Verhoeven, K. Swinnen, J. Cailleau, L. Deboel, L. Rombauts & W. Heyns: The role of cell-cell interactions in androgen action. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 41, 487-494 (1992)

82. M. E. Gleave, J. T. Hsieh, A. C. von Eschenbach & L. W. Chung: Prostate and bone fibroblasts induce human prostate cancer growth in vivo: implications for bidirectional tumor-stromal cell interaction in prostate carcinoma growth and metastasis. J Urol 147, 1151-9 (1992)

83. G. Vollmer, H. Michna, M. R. Schneider & R. Knuppen: Stromal expression of tenascin is inversely correlated to epithelial differentiation of hormone dependent tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 48, 487-94 (1994)

84. T. Seki, R. Ideta, M. Shibuya & K. Adachi: Isolation and characterization of cDNA for an androgen-regulated mRNA in the flank organ of hamsters. J Invest Derm 96, 926-31 (1991)

85. B. A. Araneo, T. Dowell, M. Diegel & R. A. Daynes: Dihydrotestosterone exerts a depressive influence on the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and g-interferon, but not IL-2 by activated murine T cells. Blood 78, 688-699 (1991)

86. P. J. Sheridan: Can a single androgen receptor fill the bill? Mol Cell Endocrinol 76, C39-C45 (1991)

87. J. P. Deslypere, M. Young, J. D. Wilson & M. J. McPhaul: Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone interact differently with the androgen receptor to enhance transcription of the MMTV-CAT reporter gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 88, 15-22 (1992)

88. T. Yamamoto, T. Nishida, N. Miyajima, S. Kawai, T. Ooi & K. Toyoshima: The v-erb B gene of Avian erythroblastosis virus is a member of the Src gene family. Cell 35, 71-78 (1983)

89. L. A. Aarden: Hybridoma growth factor. Ann New York Acad Sci 557, 192-199 (1989)

90. W. G. Yarbrough, V. E. Quarmby, J. A. Simental, D. R. Joseph, M. Sar, D. B. Lubahn, K. L. Olsen, F. S. French & E. M. Wilson: A single base mutation in the androgen receptor gene causes androgen insensitivity in the testicular feminized rat. J Biol Chem 265, 8893-900 (1990)

91. P. S. Rennie, N. Bruchovsky, K. H. Leco, P. C. Sheppard, S. A. McQueen, H. Cheng, R. Snoek, A. Hamel, M. E. Bock, B. S. MacDonald, B. E. Nickel, C. Chang, S. Liao, P. A. Cattini & R. J. Matusik: Characterization of two cis-acting DNA elements involved in the androgen regulation of the probasin gene. Mol Endocrinol 7, 23-36 (1993)

92. K. C. Ho, K. B. Marschke, J. Tan, S. G. Power, E. M. Wilson & F. S. French: A complex response element in intron 1 of the androgen-regulated 20-kDa protein gene displays cell type-dependent androgen receptor specificity. J Biol Chem 268, 27226-35 (1993)

93. P. Murtha, D. J. Tindall & C. Y. F. Young: Androgen induction of a human prostate-specific kallikrein, hKLK2: Characterization of an androgen response element in the 5' promoter region of the gene. Biochemistry 32, 6459-6464 (1993)

94. P. J. Roche, S. A. Hoare & M. G. Parker: A consensus DNA-binding site for the androgen receptor. Mol Endocrinol 6, 2229-2235 (1992)

95. M. Nonaka, K. Nakayama, Y. D. Yeul, A. Shimizu & M. Takahashi: Molecular cloning and characterization of complementary and genomic DNA clones for mouse C4 and Slp. Immunological Rev 87, 81-99 (1985)

96. C. Hemenway & D. M. Robins: DNase I-hypersensitive sites associated with expression and hormonal regulation of mouse C4 and Slp genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84, 4816-20 (1987)

97. F. Loreni, J. Stavenhagen, M. Kalff & D. M. Robins: A complex androgen-responsive enhancer resides 2 kilobases upstream of the mouse Slp gene. Mol Cell Biol 8, 2350-60 (1988)

98. A. J. Adler, A. Scheller, Y. Hoffman & D. M. Robins: Multiple components of a complex androgen-dependent enhancer. Mol Endocrinol 5, 1587-96 (1991)

99. A. J. Adler, M. Danielsen & D. M. Robins: Androgen-specific gene activation via a consensus glucocorticoid response element is determined by interaction with nonreceptor factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 11660-3 (1992)

100. A. J. Adler, A. Scheller & D. M. Robins: The stringency and magnitude of androgen-specific gene activation are combinatorial functions of receptor and nonreceptor binding site sequences. Mol Cell Biol 13, 6326-35 (1993)

101. U. Strahle, M. Boshart, G. Klock, F. Stewart & G. Schutz: Glucocorticoid- and progesterone-specific effects are determined by differential expression of the respective hormone receptors. Nature 339, 629-32 (1989)

102. J. Trapman, C. Ris-Stalpers, J. A. G. M. van der Korput, F. F. J. M. Kuiper, P. W. Faber, J. C. Romijn, E. Mulder & A. O. Brinkmann: The androgen receptor: Functional structure and expression in transplanted human prostate tumors and prostate tumor cell lines. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 37, 837-842 (1990)

103. N. Sato, H. Suzuki & J. Shimazaki: Mechanism of loss of androgen dependency in androgen-dependent tumor (Japanese). Human Cell 6, 170-175 (1993)

104. G. W. Chodak, D. M. Kranc, L. A. Puy, H. Takeda, K. Johnson & C. Chang: Nuclear localization of androgen receptor in heterogeneous samples of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic human prostate. J Urol 147, 798-803 (1992)

105. M. V. Sadi & E. R. Barrack: Image analysis of androgen receptor immunostaining in metastatic prostate cancer. Heterogeneity as a predictor of response to hormonal therapy. Cancer 71, 2574-2580 (1992)

106. T. van der Kwast H, J. Schalken, J. Ruizeveld de Winter A, C. van Vroonhoven C, J, E. Mulder, W. Boersma & J. Trapman: Androgen receptors in endocrine-therapy-resistant human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 48, 189-193 (1991)

107. J. P. Gaddipati, D. G. McLeod, H. B. Heidenberg, I. A. Sesterhenn, M. J. Finger, J. W. Moul & S. Srivastava: Frequent detection of codon 877 mutation in the androgen receptor gene in advanced prostate cancers. Cancer Res 54, 2861-2864 (1994)

108. M. P. Schoenberg, J. M. Hakimi, S. Wang, G. S. Bova, J. I. Epstein, K. H. Fischbeck, W. B. Isaacs, P. C. Walsh & E. R. Barrack: Microsatellite mutation (CAG24 to 18) in the androgen receptor gene in human prostate cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 198, 74-80 (1994)

109. J. R. Newmark, D. O. Hardy, D. C. Tonb, B. S. Carter, J. I. Epstein, W. B. Isaacs, T. R. Brown & E. R. Barrack: Androgen receptor gene mutations in human prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 6319-23 (1992)

110. H. Suzuki, N. Sato, Y. Watabe, M. Masai, S. Seino & J. Shimazaki: Androgen receptor gene mutations in human prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 46, 759-65 (1993)

111. Z. Culig, A. Hobisch, M. V. Cronauer, A. C. Cato, A. Hittmair, C. Radmayr, J. Eberle, G. Bartsch & H. Klocker: Mutant androgen receptor detected in an advanced-stage prostatic carcinoma is activated by adrenal androgens and progesterone. Mol Endocrinol 7, 1541-50 (1993)

112. S. E. Harris, Z. Rong, M. A. Harris & D. D. Lubahn: Androgen receptor in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP/ADEP cells contains a mutation which alters the specificity of the steroid-dependent transcriptional activation region. Endocrinology 126(Supp), 93-97 (1990)

113. G. Wilding, M. Chen & E. P. Gelmann: Aberrant response in vitro of hormone-responsive prostate cancer cells to antiandrogens. Prostate 14, 103-115 (1989)

114. J. Veldscholte, C. A. Berrevoets, A. O. Brinkmann, J. A. Grootegoed & E. Mulder: Anti-androgens and the mutated androgen receptor of LNCaP cells: differential effects on binding affinity, heat-shock protein interaction, and transcription activation. Biochemistry 31, 2393-9 (1992)

115. J. L. Ware: Growth factors and their receptors as determinants in the proliferation and metastasis of human prostate cancer. Cancer Met Rev 12, 287-301 (1993)

116. Z. Culig, A. Hobisch, M. V. Cronauer, C. Radmayr, J. Trapman, A. Hittmair, G. Bartsch & H. Klocker: Androgen receptor activation in prostatic tumor cell lines by insulin-like growth factor-I, keratinocyte growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Cancer Res 54, 5474-8 (1994)

117. M. C. Luke & D. S. Coffey: Human androgen receptor binding to the androgen response element of prostate specific antigen. J Androl 15, 41-51 (1994)

[Table of Contents] [Previous Section]