[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 25, 1872-1890, June 1, 2020]

Japanese encephalitis virus: a review on emerging diagnostic techniques

Akanksha Roberts1, Sonu Gandhi1

1DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad-500032, Telangana, India

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Different diagnostic techniques of Japanese Encephalitis Virus
    3.1. Virus isolation
    3.2. Plaque reduction neutralisation test
    3.3. Hemagglutination inhibition
    3.4. Complement fixation test
    3.5. Immunofluorescence test
    3.6. Molecular assays
    3.7. IgG and IgM ELISA
    3.8. Biosensors
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgement
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is the most common Flavivirus based mosquito borne viral encephalitis in the world, especially in countries of South-East Asia. The conventional methods such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test and virus isolation are still in use today but new advances are being made to develop more efficient, inexpensive, quicker, sensitive and time-saving techniques to detect JEV. Some of these include the use of immunosensors, both lateral flow based assays and electrochemical, as well as the incorporation of nanotechnology into biosensors to develop highly sensitive detection tools. This review focuses on the recent advances that have been made to diagnose Japanese Encephalitis Virus which are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts.

6. REFERENCES

1. R. H. Hua, L. K. Liu, Z. S. Chen, Y. N. Li and Z. G. Bu: Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies. PLoS One 8, e67553-67561 (2013)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067553

2. E. L. Buescher and W. F. Scherer: Ecologic Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8, 719-722 (1959)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1959.8.719

3. M. Yoshii, E. L. Buescher, J. T. Moyer, M. Z. Rosenberg, W. F. Scherer, Y. Okada and H. E. McClure: Ecologic Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8, 678-688 (1959)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1959.8.678

4. I. Gresser, T. Izumi, J. T. Moyer, W. F. Scherer and J. McCown: Ecologic Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8, 698-706 (1959)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1959.8.698

5. E. L. Buescher and W. F. Scherer: Ecologic Studies of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8, 644-650 (1959)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1959.8.644

6. G. Le Flohic, V. Porphyre, P. Barbazan and J. P. Gonzalez: Review of Climate, Landscape, and Viral Genetics as Drivers of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Ecology. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7, e2208-2216 (2013)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002208

7. T. P. Monath: Japanese Encephalitis - A Plague of the Orient. N Engl J Med 319, 641-643 (1988)
DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198809083191009

8. T. E. Erlanger, S. Weiss, J. Keiser, J. Utzinger and K. Wiedenmayer: Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis 15, 1-7 (2009)
DOI: 10.3201/eid1501.080311

9. T. Solomon, H. Ni, D. W. C. Beasley, M. Ekkelenkamp, M. J. Cardosa and A. D. T. Barrett: Origin and Evolution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Southeast Asia. J Virol 77, 3091-3098 (2003)
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.77.5.3091-3098.2003

10. S. Tiwari, R. K. Singh, R. Tiwari and T. N. Dhole: Japanese encephalitis: a review of the Indian perspective. Brazilian J Infect Dis 16, 564-573 (2012)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2012.10.004

11. S. A. Tsarev, M. L. Sanders, D. W. Vaughn and B. L. Innis: Phylogenetic analysis suggests only one serotype of Japanese encephalitis virus. Vaccine 18 Suppl 2, 36-43 (2000)
DOI: 10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00039-6

12. V. Satchidanandam and P. D. Uchil: Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus: envelope gene based analysis reveals a fifth genotype, geographic clustering, and multiple introductions of the virus into the Indian subcontinent. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65, 242-251 (2001)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2001.65.242

13. N. R. Hegde and M. M. Gore: Japanese encephalitis vaccines: Immunogenicity, protective efficacy, effectiveness, and impact on the burden of disease. Hum Vaccin Immunother 13, 1-18 (2017)
DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1285472

14. R. Kumari and P. Joshi: A review of Japanese encephalitis in Uttar Pradesh, India. WHO South-East Asia J Public Heal 1, 374-395 (2017)
DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.207040

15. H. Sumiyoshi, C. H. Hoke and D. W. Trent: Infectious Japanese encephalitis virus RNA can be synthesized from in vitro-ligated cDNA templates. J Virol 66, 5425-5431 (1992)
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.66.9.5425-5431.1992

16. J. K. Kim, J. M. Kim, B. H. Song, S. I. Yun, G. N. Yun, S. J. Byun and Y. M. Lee: Profiling of Viral Proteins Expressed from the Genomic RNA of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using a Panel of 15 Region-Specific Polyclonal Rabbit Antisera: Implications for Viral Gene Expression. PLoS One 10, e0124318-0124345 (2015)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124318

17. S. Apte-Sengupta, D. Sirohi and R. J. Kuhn: Coupling of replication and assembly in flaviviruses. Curr Opin Virol 9, 134-142 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.coviro.2014.09.020

18. D. K. Yang, C. H. Kweon, B. H. Kim, S. I. Lim, S. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon and H. R. Han: TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. J Vet Sci 5, 345-351 (2004)
DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2004.5.4.345

19. B. W. Johnson, O. Kosoy, E. Hunsperger, M. Beltran, M. Delorey, F. Guirakhoo and T. Monath: Evaluation of Chimeric Japanese Encephalitis and Dengue Viruses for Use in Diagnostic Plaque Reduction Neutralization Tests. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16, 1052-1059 (2009)
DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00095-09

20. G. N. Sapkal, N. S. Wairagkar, V. M. Ayachit, V. P. Bondre and M. M. Gore: Detection and Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus From Blood Clots Collected During the Acute Phase of Infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77, 1139-1145 (2007)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.1139

21. L. Wang, S. Fu, H. Zhang, X. Ye, D. Yu, Z. Dheng, J. Yuan, Y. Zhai, M. Li, Z. Lv, W. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Gao, Y. Cao, H. Wang, Q. Tang and G. Liang: Identification and isolation of Genotype-I Japanese Encephalitis virus from encephalitis patients. Virol J 7, 345 (2010)
DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-345

22. K. E. Jones, N. G. Patel, M. A. Levy, A. Storeygard, D. Balk, J. L. Gittleman and P. Daszak: Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451, 990-993 (2008)
DOI: 10.1038/nature06536

23. S. Gandhi, N. Caplash, P. Sharma and C. Raman Suri: Strip-based immunochromatographic assay using specific egg yolk antibodies for rapid detection of morphine in urine samples. Biosens Bioelectron 25, 502-505 (2009)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2009.07.018

24. S. Singh, P. Mishra, I. Banga, A. S. Parmar, P. P. Tripathi and S. Gandhi: Chemiluminescence based immunoassay for the detection of heroin and its metabolites. BioImpacts 8, 53-58 (2017)
DOI: 10.15171/bi.2018.07

25. S. Gandhi, I. Banga, P. K. Maurya and S. A. Eremin: A gold nanoparticle-single-chain fragment variable antibody as an immunoprobe for rapid detection of morphine by dipstick. RSC Adv 8, 1511-1518 (2018)
DOI: 10.1039/C7RA12810J

26. I. P. M. Wijaya, T. J. Nie, S. Gandhi, R. Boro, A. Palaniappan, G. W. Hau; I. Rodriguez, C. R. Suri and S. G. Mhaisalkar: Femtomolar detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides via competitive immunoassays using microfluidic based carbon nanotube liquid gated transistor. Lab Chip 10, 634-638 (2010)
DOI: 10.1039/B918566F

27. L. Liu, D. Xu, Y. Hu, S. Liu, H. Wei, J. Zheng, G. Wang, X. Hu and C. Wang: Construction of an impedimetric immunosensor for label-free detecting carbofuran residual in agricultural and environmental samples. Food Control 53, 72-80 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.01.009

28. S. Islam, S. Shukla, V. K. Bajpai, Y. K. Han, Y. S. Huh, A. Kumar, A. Ghosh and S. Gandhi: A smart nanosensor for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus and associated cardiovascular and arthritis diseases using functionalized graphene-based transistors. Biosens Bioelectron 126, 792-799 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.11.041

29. S. Afsahi, M. B. Lerner, J. M. Goldstein, J. Lee, X. Tang, D. A. Bagarozzi, D. Pan, L. Locascio, A. Walker, F. Barron and B. R. Goldsmith: Novel graphene-based biosensor for early detection of Zika virus infection. Biosens Bioelectron 100, 85-88 (2018)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.051

30. A. Roberts, P. P. Tripathi and S. Gandhi: Graphene nanosheets as an electric mediator for ultrafast sensing of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-A biomarker of cancer. Biosens Bioelectron 141, 111398-111406 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111398

31. E. Bakker: Electrochemical Sensors. Anal Chem 76, 3285-3298 (2004)
DOI: 10.1021/ac049580z

32. B. Pejcic, R. De Marco and G. Parkinson: The role of biosensors in the detection of emerging infectious diseases. Analyst 131, 1079-1090 (2006)
DOI: 10.1039/b603402k

33. H. Dhanze, K. N. Bhilegaonkar, C. Kumar, M. S. Kumar, P. Singh and A. Kumar: Development and evaluation of lateral flow assay for sero-diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in swine. Anim Biotechnol 30, 1-7 (2019)
DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2019.1602539

34. L. S. Lim, S. F. Chin, S. C. Pang, M. S. Henry Sum and D. Perera: A Novel Silver Nanoparticles-based Sensing Probe for the Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antigen. Sains Malaysiana 46, 2447-2454 (2017)
DOI: 10.17576/jsm-2017-4612-21

35. H. C. Lai, S. F. Chin, S. C. Pang, M. S. Henry Sum and D. Perera: Carbon Nanoparticles Based Electrochemical Biosensor Strip for Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. J Nanomater 2017, 1-7 (2017)
DOI: 10.1155/2017/3615707

36. K. L. Mansfield, D. L. Horton, N. Johnson, L. Li, A. D. T. Barrett, D. J. Smith, S. E. Galbraith, T. Solomon and A. R. Fooks: Flavivirus-induced antibody cross-reactivity. J Gen Virol 92, 2821-2829 (2011)
DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.031641-0

37. K. L. Mansfield, L. M. Hernández-Triana, A. C. Banyard, A. R. Fooks and N. Johnson: Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals. Vet Microbiol 201, 85-92 (2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.014

38. B. R. Gulati, H. Singha, B. K. Singh, N. Virmani, S. Kumar and R. K Singh: Isolation and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus from equines in India. J Vet Sci 13, 111-118 (2012)
DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2012.13.2.111

39. H. J. Lee, K. Il Min, K. H. Park, H. J. Choi, M. K. Kim, C. Y. Ahn, Y. J. Hong and Y. B. Kim: Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test. J Microbiol 52, 435-440 (2014)
DOI: 10.1007/s12275-014-3529-y

40. N. Litzba, C. S. Klade, S. Lederer and M. Niedrig: Evaluation of serological diagnostic test systems assessing the immune response to Japanese encephalitis vaccination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4, e883-893 (2010)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000883

41. P. Sukhavachana, T. M. Yuill and P. K. Russell: Assay of arbovirus neutralizing antibody by micro methods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 63, 446-455(1969)
DOI: 10.1016/0035-9203(69)90031-5

42. W. C. Lian, M. Y. Liau and C. L. Mao: Diagnosis and Genetic Analysis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infected in Horses. J Vet Med Ser B 49, 361-365 (2002)
DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0450.2002.00509.x

43. D. H. Clarke And J. Casals: Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7, 561-573 (1958)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1958.7.561

44. F. R. Simonetti, R. Dewar and F. Maldarelli: Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Mand Douglas, Bennett's Princ Pract Infect Dis 1, 1503.e1-1525.e7 (2015)

45. M. Tanaka: Rapid identification of flavivirus using the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 41, 311-322 (1993)
DOI: 10.1016/0166-0934(93)90020-R

46. Y. J. Chung, J. H. Nam, S. J. Ban and H. W. Cho: Antigenic and genetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis viruses isolated from Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55, 91-97 (1996)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.1996.55.91

47. L. R. Jan, Y. Y. Yueh, Y. C. Wu, C. B. Horng and G. R. Wang: Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62, 446-452 (2000)
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2000.62.446

48. X. Gao, H. Liu, H. Wang, S. Fu, Z. Guo and G. Liang: Southernmost Asia Is the Source of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (Genotype 1) Diversity from which the Viruses Disperse and Evolve throughout Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7, e2459-2470 (2013)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002459

49. L. P. Do, T. M. Bui, F. Hasebe, K. Morita and N. T. Phan: Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in northern Vietnam, 1964-2011: genotype replacement. Virol J 12, 51-58 (2015)
DOI: 10.1186/s12985-015-0278-4

50. M. M. Parida, S. R. Santhosh, P. K. Dash, N. K. Tripathi, P. Saxena, S. Ambuj, A. K. Sahni, P. V. Lakshmuna Rao and K. Morita: Development and evaluation of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and real-time detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. J Clin Microbiol 44, 4172-4178 (2006)
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01487-06

51. H. Toriniwa and T. Komiya: Rapid Detection and Quantification of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification. Microbiol Immunol 50, 379-387 (2013)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03804.x

52. D. T. Williams, L. F. Wang, P. W. Daniels and J. S. Mackenzie: Molecular characterization of the first Australian isolate of Japanese encephalitis virus, the FU strain. J Gen Virol 81, 2471-2480 (2000)
DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-81-10-2471

53. D. A. Marston, L. M. McElhinney, R. J. Ellis, D. L. Horton, E. L. Wise, S. L. Leech, D. David, X. de Lamballerie and A. R. Fooks: Next generation sequencing of viral RNA genomes. BMC Genomics 14, 444-456 (2013)
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-444

54. M. H. Li, S. H. Fu, W. X. Chen, H.Y. Wang, Y.X. Cao and G.D. Liang: Molecular characterization of full-length genome of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype v isolated from Tibet, China. Biomed Environ Sci 27, 231-239 (2014)

55. A. J. Schuh, H. Guzman, R. B. Tesh and A. D. T. Barrett: Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the Indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 13, 479-488 (2013)
DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0870

56. P. Rao, H. Wu, Y. Jiang, T. Opriessnig, X. Zheng, Y. Mo and Z. Yang: Development of an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder. J Virol Methods 208, 56-62 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.06.027

57. Z. Zeng, Z. Liu, W. Wang, D. Tang, H. Liang and Z. Liu: Establishment and application of a multiplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of six viruses in swine. J Virol Methods 208, 102-106 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.08.001

58. H. Dhanze, K. N. Bhilegaonkar, G. V. P. P. S. Ravi Kumar, P. Thomas, H. B. Chethan Kumar, M. Suman Kumar, S. Rawat, P. Kerketta, D. B. Rawool and A. Kumar: Comparative evaluation of nucleic acid-based assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in swine blood samples. Arch Virol 160, 1259-1266 (2015)
DOI: 10.1007/s00705-015-2385-3

59. L. P. Do, T. M. Bui, F. Hasebe, K. Morita and N. T. Phan: Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in northern Vietnam, 1964-2011: Genotype replacement Positive-strand RNA viruses. Virol J 12, 51-58 (2015)
DOI: 10.1186/s12985-015-0278-4

60. L .G. Glushakova, A. Bradley, K. M. Bradley, B. W. Alto, S. Hoshika, D. Hutter, N. Sharma, Z. Yang, M. J. Kim and S. A. Benner: High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology. J Virol Methods 214, 60-74 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.01.003

61. D. S. Burke, A. Nisalak and M. A. Ussery: Antibody capture immunoassay detection of japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m and g antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 16, 1034-1042 (1982)
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.16.6.1034-1042.1982

62. H. Dhanze, K. N. Bhilegaonkar, S. Rawat, H. B. Chethan, P. Kerketta, N. Dudhe and A. Kumar: Seasonal Sero-prevalence of Japanese Encephalitis in Swine using Indirect IgG ELISA. J Vet Public Heal 12, 103-105 (2014)

63. D. K. Yang, B. H. Kim, S. I. Lim, J. H. Kwon, K. W. Lee, C. U. Choi and C. H. Kweon: Development and evaluation of indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in swine. J Vet Sci 7, 271-275 (2006)
DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2006.7.3.271

64. E. Konishi, M. Shoda, N. Ajiro and T. Kondo: Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantifying antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural 1 protein to detect subclinical infections in vaccinated horses. J Clin Microbiol 42, 5087-5093 (2004)
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.42.11.5087-5093.2004

65. S. Thakur, S. Gandhi, A. K. Paul and C. R. Suri: A flow injection immunosensor for the detection of atrazine in water samples. Sensors and Transducers 131, 91-100 (2011)

66. J. N. Tey, S. Gandhi, I. P. M. Wijaya, A. Palaniappan, J. Wei, I. Rodriguez, C. R. Suri and S. G. Mhaisalkar: Direct Detection of Heroin Metabolites Using a Competitive Immunoassay Based on a Carbon-Nanotube Liquid-Gated Field-Effect Transistor. Small 6, 993-998 (2010)
DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902139

67. C. R. Suri, R. Boro, Y. Nangia, S. Gandhi, P. Sharma, N. Wangoo, K. Rajesh and G. Shekhawat: Immunoanalytical techniques for analyzing pesticides in the environment. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 28, 29-39 (2009)
DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2008.09.017

68. C. R. Suri, J. Kaur, S. Gandhi and G. S. Shekhawat: Label-free ultra-sensitive detection of atrazine based on nanomechanics. Nanotechnology 19, 235502-235508 (2008)
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/19/23/235502

69. S. Gandhi, P. Sharma, N. Capalash, R. S. Verma and C. R. Suri: Group-selective antibodies based fluorescence immunoassay for monitoring opiate drugs. Anal Bioanal Chem 392, 215-222 (2008)
DOI: 10.1007/s00216-008-2256-9

70. I. P. Mahendra Wijaya, S. Gandhi, T. Ju Nie, N. Wangoo, I. Rodriguez, G. Shekhawat, C. R. Suri and S. G. Mhaisalkar: Protein/carbon nanotubes interaction: The effect of carboxylic groups on conformational and conductance changes. Appl Phys Lett 95, 073704-073707 (2009)
DOI: 10.1063/1.3211328

71. S. Gandhi, P. Suman, A. Kumar, P. Sharma, N. Capalash and C. R. Suri: Recent advances in immunosensor for narcotic drug detection. Bioimpacts 5, 207-213 (2015)
DOI: 10.15171/bi.2015.30

72. P. Mishra, I. Banga, R. Tyagi, T. Munjal, A. Goel, N. Capalash, P. Sharma, C. R. Suri and S. Gandhi: An immunochromatographic dipstick as an alternate for monitoring of heroin metabolites in urine samples. RSC Adv 8, 23163-23170 (2018)
DOI: 10.1039/C8RA02018C

73. A. Talan, A. Mishra, S. A. Eremin, J. Narang, A. Kumar and S. Gandhi: Ultrasensitive electrochemical immuno-sensing platform based on gold nanoparticles triggering chlorpyrifos detection in fruits and vegetables. Biosens Bioelectron 105, 14-21 (2018)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.01.013

74. S. Islam, S. Shukla, V. K. Bajpai, Y. K. Han, Y. S. Huh, A. Ghosh and S. Gandhi: Microfluidic-based graphene field effect transistor for femtomolar detection of chlorpyrifos. Sci Rep 9, 276-283 (2019)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36746-w

75. L. Mahmudin, E. Suharyadi, A. B. S. Utomo and K. Abraha: Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles for Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-Based Biosensor Applications. J Mod Phy 6, 58181-58185 (2015)
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.68111

76. Z. S. Pillai and P. V. Kamat: What factors control the size and shape of silver nanoparticles in the citrate ion reduction method? J Phys Chem B 108, 945-951 (2004)
DOI: 10.1021/jp037018r

77. N. Thiyagarajan, J. Chang, K. Senthilkumar and J. Zen: Disposable electrochemical sensors: A mini review. Electrochem Comm 38, 86-90 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2013.11.016

78. C. E. Banks and R. G. Compton: New electrodes for old: from carbon nanotubes to edge plane pyrolytic graphite. Analyst 131, 15-21 (2006)
DOI: 10.1039/B512688F

79. L. Anfossi, C. Baggiani and C. Giovannoli: Lateral-flow immunoassays for mycotoxins and phycotoxins: a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 405, 467-480 (2013)
DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6033-4

80. M. Sajid, A. Kawde and M. Daud: Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: A literature review. J Saudi Chem Soc 19, 689-705 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jscs.2014.09.001

81. T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. Van Chung, P. T. Nga and M. A. Tuan: A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens. Talanta 86, 271-277 (2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.09.012

82. C. Liang, H. Wang, K. He, C. Chen, X. Chen, H. Gong and C. Cai: A virus-MIPs fluorescent sensor based on FRET for highly sensitive detection of JEV. Talanta 160, 360-366 (2016)
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2016.06.010

83. W. Feng, C. Liang, H. Gong and C. Cai: Sensitive detection of Japanese encephalitis virus by surface molecularly imprinted technique based on fluorescent method. New J Chem 42, 3503-3508 (2018)
DOI: 10.1039/C7NJ04791F

84. L. Luo, J. Yang, K. Liang, C. Chen, X. Chen and C. Cai: Fast and sensitive detection of Japanese encephalitis virus based on a magnetic molecular imprinted polymer-resonance light scattering sensor. Talanta 202, 21-26 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2019.04.064

85. Q. H. Tran, T. H. Hanh Nguyen, A. T. Mai, T. T. Nguyen, Q. K. Vu and T. N. Phan: Development of electrochemical immunosensors based on different serum antibody immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 3, 015012-015018 (2012)
DOI: 10.1088/2043-6262/3/1/015012

86. C. Van Tuan, T. Q. Huy, N. Van Hieu, M. A. Tuan and T. Trung: Polyaniline Nanowires-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for Label Free Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Anal Lett 46, 1229-1240 (2013)
DOI: 10.1080/00032719.2012.755688

87. F. Li, L. Mei, Y. Li, K. Zhao, H. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Hu and S. Cao: Facile fabrication of magnetic gold electrode for magnetic beads-based electrochemical immunoassay: Application to the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus. Biosens Bioelectron 26, 4253-4256 (2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2011.04.028

88. X. Geng, F. Zhang, Q. Gao And Y. Lei: Sensitive Impedimetric Immunoassay of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Based on Enzyme Biocatalyzed Precipitation on a Gold Nanoparticle-modified Screen-printed Carbon Electrode. Anal Sci 32, 1105-1109 (2016)
DOI: 10.2116/analsci.32.1105

89. S. F. Chin, L. S. Lim, S. C. Pang, M. S. H. Sum and D. Perera: Carbon nanoparticle modified screen printed carbon electrode as a disposable electrochemical immunosensor strip for the detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. Microchim Acta 184, 491-497 (2017)
DOI: 10.1007/s00604-016-2029-7

Abbreviations: Ab: Antibody; Ag: Antigen; AgNPs: Silver Nanoparticles; AuNPs: Gold Nanoparticles; APTES- (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane; BHK: Baby Hamster Kidney; BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin; BSL-3: Biological Safety Level-3; C: Capsid; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CNPs: Carbon Nanoparticles; CNS: Central Nervous System; CV: Cyclic Voltammetry; E: Envelope; EDC: 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide; EIS: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy; FESEM: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope; FRET: Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer; FTIR: Fourier-Transform Infrared; ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; HCl: Hydrochloric Acid; HI: Hemagglutination Inhibition; IFA: Immunofluorescence Assay; IgG: Immunoglobulin G; IgM: Immunoglobulin M; ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research; IIFT: Indirect Immunofluorescence Test; IVRI: Indian Veterinary Research Institute; JERA: Japanese Encephalitis Recombinant Antigen; JEV: Japanese Encephalitis Virus; LFA: Lateral Flow Assay; LOD: Limit of Detection; MIPs: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers; MWCNTs: Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes; NCM: Nitrocellulose Membrane; NHS: N- Hydroxysuccinimide; NPs: Nanoparticles; NS: Non Structural; OIE: Office International des Epizooties; ORF: Open Reading Frame; PBS: Phosphate Buffer Saline; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction; PFU: Plaque Forming Units; PoC: Point of Care; PPE: Personal Protective Equipment; prM: Pre Membrane; PRNT: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test; RI: Refractive Index; RNA: Ribonucleic Acid; RT-LAMP: Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification; RT-PCR: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; SEM: Scanning Electron Microscope; S/N: Signal to Noise Ratio; SPCE: Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode; SPP: Surface Plasmon Polariton; SPR: Surface Plasmon Resonance; TEM: Transmission Electron Microscope; TMB: 3,3’,5,5’- Tetramethylbenzidine; UTR: Untranslated Region; UV-Vis: Ultra Violet-Visible, WHO: World Health Orgnaization

Key Words: Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Diagnosis, Sensitive, Biosensors, Nanoparticles, Point of Care, Review

Send correspondence to: Sonu Gandhi, DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad-500032, Telangana, India, Tel: 040-23120127, Fax: 040-23120130, E-mail: sonugandhi@gmail.com