[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 25, 1872-1890, June 1, 2020]

Japanese encephalitis virus: a review on emerging diagnostic techniques

Akanksha Roberts1, Sonu Gandhi1

1DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad-500032, Telangana, India


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Different diagnostic techniques of Japanese Encephalitis Virus
    3.1. Virus isolation
    3.2. Plaque reduction neutralisation test
    3.3. Hemagglutination inhibition
    3.4. Complement fixation test
    3.5. Immunofluorescence test
    3.6. Molecular assays
    3.7. IgG and IgM ELISA
    3.8. Biosensors
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgement
6. References


Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is the most common Flavivirus based mosquito borne viral encephalitis in the world, especially in countries of South-East Asia. The conventional methods such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test and virus isolation are still in use today but new advances are being made to develop more efficient, inexpensive, quicker, sensitive and time-saving techniques to detect JEV. Some of these include the use of immunosensors, both lateral flow based assays and electrochemical, as well as the incorporation of nanotechnology into biosensors to develop highly sensitive detection tools. This review focuses on the recent advances that have been made to diagnose Japanese Encephalitis Virus which are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts.


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Abbreviations: Ab: Antibody; Ag: Antigen; AgNPs: Silver Nanoparticles; AuNPs: Gold Nanoparticles; APTES- (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane; BHK: Baby Hamster Kidney; BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin; BSL-3: Biological Safety Level-3; C: Capsid; CFT: Complement Fixation Test; CNPs: Carbon Nanoparticles; CNS: Central Nervous System; CV: Cyclic Voltammetry; E: Envelope; EDC: 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide; EIS: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy; FESEM: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope; FRET: Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer; FTIR: Fourier-Transform Infrared; ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; HCl: Hydrochloric Acid; HI: Hemagglutination Inhibition; IFA: Immunofluorescence Assay; IgG: Immunoglobulin G; IgM: Immunoglobulin M; ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research; IIFT: Indirect Immunofluorescence Test; IVRI: Indian Veterinary Research Institute; JERA: Japanese Encephalitis Recombinant Antigen; JEV: Japanese Encephalitis Virus; LFA: Lateral Flow Assay; LOD: Limit of Detection; MIPs: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers; MWCNTs: Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes; NCM: Nitrocellulose Membrane; NHS: N- Hydroxysuccinimide; NPs: Nanoparticles; NS: Non Structural; OIE: Office International des Epizooties; ORF: Open Reading Frame; PBS: Phosphate Buffer Saline; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction; PFU: Plaque Forming Units; PoC: Point of Care; PPE: Personal Protective Equipment; prM: Pre Membrane; PRNT: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test; RI: Refractive Index; RNA: Ribonucleic Acid; RT-LAMP: Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification; RT-PCR: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; SEM: Scanning Electron Microscope; S/N: Signal to Noise Ratio; SPCE: Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode; SPP: Surface Plasmon Polariton; SPR: Surface Plasmon Resonance; TEM: Transmission Electron Microscope; TMB: 3,3’,5,5’- Tetramethylbenzidine; UTR: Untranslated Region; UV-Vis: Ultra Violet-Visible, WHO: World Health Orgnaization

Key Words: Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Diagnosis, Sensitive, Biosensors, Nanoparticles, Point of Care, Review

Send correspondence to: Sonu Gandhi, DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad-500032, Telangana, India, Tel: 040-23120127, Fax: 040-23120130, E-mail: sonugandhi@gmail.com