[Frontiers in Bioscience, Landmark, 25, 1259-1296, March 1, 2020]

Phytoconstituents as novel osteo-protective agents: Implications in bone health

Zaffar Azam1, Vikas Pandey2, Navita Gupta3, Leena Sapra4, Hamid Y. Dar4,5, Niti Shokeen4, Asha Bhardwaj4, Ayaan Ahmad4, Vandana Soni2, Rupesh K. Srivastava4

1Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar (MP)-470003, India, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar (MP)-470003, India, 3Chitkara School of Health Sciences, Chitkara University, Punjab-140401, India, 4Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, (AIIMS), New Delhi-110029, India, 5Divison of Endocrinology, School of medicine, Emory University Atlanta, Georgia- 30322, USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Phytoconstituents as novel osteoprotective agents
    3.1. Achyranthes bidentata (Family: Amaranthaceae)
    3.2. Actaea heracleifolia (Family: Ranunculaceae)
    3.3. Astragalus membranaceus (Family: Fabaceae)
    3.4. Cibotium barometz (Family: Dicksoniaceae)
    3.5. Cimicifuga racemosa (Family: Ranunculaceae)
    3.6. Cissus quadrangularis (Family: Vitaceae)
    3.7. Coffea canephora or arabica (Family: Rubiaceae)
    3.8. Commiphora molmol (Family: Burseraceae)
    3.9. Coriolus versicolor (Family: Polyporaceae)
    3.10. Cornus officinalis (Family: Cornaceae)
    3.11. Crocus sativus (Family: Iridaceae)
    3.12. Cryptolepis buchanani (Family: Asclepiadaceae)
    3.13. Curcuma longa (Family: Zingiberaceae)
    3.14. Cuscuta chinensis (Family: Convolvulaceae)
    3.15. Dioscorea opposita (Family: Dioscoreaceae)
    3.16. Dioscorea villosa (Family: Dioscoreaceae)
    3.17. Dipsacus asper wall (Family: Caprifoliaceae)
    3.18. Drynaria baronii/Drynaria fortune (Family: Polypodiaceae)
    3.19. Eclipta prostrata (Family: Astraceae)
    3.20. Epimedii folium (Family: Berberidaceae)
    3.21. Epimedium leptorrhizum (Family: Berberidaceae)
    3.22. Equisetum arvense (Family: Equisetaceae)
    3.23. Eucommia ulmoides (Family: Eucommiaceae)
    3.24. Fructus psoraleae (Family: Leguminosae)
    3.25. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Family: Fabaceae)
    3.26. Glycine max (Family: Fabaceae)
    3.27. Herba cistanches (Family: Orobanchaceae)
    3.28. Herba epimedii (Family: Berberidaceae)
    3.29. Ligustrum lucidum (Family: Oleaceae)
    3.30. Lycium chinese (Family: Solanaceae)
    3.31. Moringa oleifera (Family: Moringaceae)
    3.32. Panax ginseng (Family: Araliaceae)
    3.33. Psoralea corylifolia (Family: Fabaceae)
    3.34. Punica granatum (Family: Lythraceae)
    3.35. Rehmannia glutinosa (Family: Scrophulariaceae)
    3.36. Sambucus williamsii (Family: Adoxaceae)
    3.37. Sambucus nigra (Family: Adoxaceae)
    3.38. Terminalia arjuna (Family: Combretaceae)
    3.39. Withania sominifera (Family: Solanaceace)
    3.40. Zingiber zerumbet (Family: Zingeberaceae)
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgments
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a progressive and chronic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of skeletal tissues. Osteoporosis leads to alteration in bone mineral content resulting in decreased bone strength with elevated fracture risks frequently associated with greater morbidity. The latest research in the area of photomedicine had sparked interest in harnessing the active components from plants in both disease control and management across the globe. We in the present review have taken a comprehensive approach to identify forty known plants and their phytoconstituents, which encompasses (i) the genetic diversity of various plants, (ii) their active components and (iii) their osteoprotective role in osteoporosis. Thus, the present review is an attempt for the first time to collectively document the therapeutic properties of valuable medicinal plants in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporosis.

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Abbreviations: BMMs, bone marrow-derived macrophages; BMP, bone morphogenic protein; BMSC, bone marrow stromal cells; CD40L, CD40 ligand; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell(s); IFN, interferon; GCR, glucocorticoid receptors; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; OPG, osteoprotegerin; OSCAR, osteoclast-associated immunoglobin like receptor; OVX, ovariectomy; PI3K, phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase; NF-κb, Nuclear factor kappa beta; RANK, receptor activator of NF-κB; RANKL, RANK ligand; TCR, T-cell receptor; Th, T-helper; TRAF, TNF receptor-associated factor; TNF-α, Tumor necrosis factor; DC, dendritic cell; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; OA, Osteoarthritis, MDA, malondialdehyde; DPA3G, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside; PNS, Panax notoginseng saponins; PSO, Psoralen; (COL I), collagen type I pathway; (mTOR)-complex, mechanistic target of rapamycin; TGF-β, Transforming growth factor-β; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; CSF, colony-stimulating factor; MCSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; FDA, Food and drug administration; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; PGE2, prostaglandins; SERM, selective estrogen receptor modulator.

Key Words: Phytoconstituents, Osteoporosis, Bone health, Bone loss, Osteo-protective and Review

Send correspondence to: Rupesh K. Srivastava, Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi -110029, India, Tel: 011-26593548, Fax: 91-11-26588663, E-mail: rupesh_srivastava13@yahoo.co.in