[Frontiers in Bioscience S3, 777-787, January 1, 2011]

Skin cancer chemoprevention by alpha-santalol

Xiaoying Zhang1, Chandradhar Dwivedi2

1Department of Biology, Shanghai chempartner Co., LTD, Shanghai, China 201203, 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. Skin cancer
2.2. Experimental animal models for skin carcinogenesis
2.3. Chemoprevention of cancer
2.4. Natural agents for skin cancer chemoprevention
3. Skin cancer chemoprevention by a-santalol in animal models
3.1. Skin cancer chemoprevention by sandalwood oil
3.2. Effects of a-santalol on 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)- 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin cancer development in mice 3.3. Effects of a-santalol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice
4. Mechanisms of action of a-santalol in skin cancer chemoprevention 4.1. General mechanisms of action of cancer chemopreventive agents
4.2. Effects of a-santalol on apoptosis
4.3. Effects of a-santalol on cell cycle
5. Conclusion and future directions
6. Acknowledgements
7. References


Alpha-santalol, a naturally occurring terpenoid, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on both 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin cancer development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice, and UVB-induced skin cancer developments in SKH-1 hairless mice in a concentration-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that a-santalol could be effective against skin carcinogenesis through both induction of apoptosis via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential and cytochrome c release in A431 cells, and inhibition of cell growth via induction of G2/M phase arrest in both A431 cells and melanoma UACC-62 cells by altering multiple cell cycle regulatory proteins and complexes. This review summarizes the chemopreventive effects and molecular mechanisms of a-santalol on skin cancer development in both animal models and skin cancer cell lines.