[Frontiers in Bioscience E3, 1524-1533, June 1, 2011]

Oxidative stress in primary open-angle glaucoma

Carl Erb1, Melanie Heinke1

1Schlosspark-Klinik, Department of Ophthalmology, Heubnerweg 2, 14059 Berlin, Germany


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Oxidative stress and the anterior chamber
3.1. General
3.1.1. The aqueous humour acts as a stream of fluid that flushes out free radicals
3.1.2. Water-soluble antioxidants
3.1.3. Fat-soluble antioxidants
3.1.4. Specific enzymes
3.2. Age-related changes
3.3. In primary open-angle glaucoma
4. Oxidative stress and the posterior chamber of the eye
4.1. General
4.1.2. Hormones
4.1.1. Pigments
4.1.3. Water-soluble antioxidants
4.1.4. Fat-soluble antioxidants
4.1.5. Specific enzymes
4.2. Age-related changes
4.3. In primary open-angle glaucoma
5. Systemic markers for oxidative stress in POAG
6. Intensification of oxidative stress in glaucoma due to systemic disease
7. The triggering of immunological processes in glaucoma due to oxidative stress
8. Summary
9. References


Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is still a mysterium. Despite some risk factors are known, like individually elevated intraocular pressure, myopia, age, genetic factors, as well as vascular risk factors and smoking, the exact mechanism developing a glaucomatous optic neuropathy are still unknown. In the pathogenesis of glaucoma oxidative stress seems to play an important role. The mitochondria have an abnormal DNS and the antioxidative capacity is reduced. In addition, in the anterior segment, e.g. trabecular meshwork as well as in the posterior pole glaucoma patients show an increased oxidative stress. Therefore oxidative stress should be considered in therapeutic approaches to glaucoma patients.