[Frontiers in Bioscience 16, 411-421, January 1, 2011]
Receptor-mediated T cell absorption of antigen presenting cell-derived molecules
Inkyu Hwang, DaLim Ki
The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037
TABLE OF CONTENTS
T cells tend to acquire a variety of cell surface molecules derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs). The molecule uptake occurs mainly during direct T/APC contact and is instigated by specific receptor/ligand interactions, such as T cell receptor (TCR) with a cognate peptide/MHC complex (pMHC) or CD28 with B7. The acquired molecules are targeted for internalization and degradation in the lysosome. Nevertheless, those molecules are expressed on the surface of T cells for a period of time. The presentation of APC-derived ligands by T cells exhibited a multitude of immunological effects via antigen-specific T/T interaction upon recognition of the absorbed antigens by contact with other T cells. Ligand uptake also occurs via absorption of membrane vesicles shed from APCs prior to contact (e.g., exosomes and plasma membrane-derived vesicles). As in ligand absorption via direct T/APC interaction, the absorption of pre-formed membrane vesicles is also dependent on specific receptor/ligand interactions. In this review, biological mechanisms underlying the ligand absorption process as well as the biological significance and application of the event will be discussed.