[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 332-342, January 1, 2010]
Biomarkers in neuroendocrine tumors
Massimiliano Berretta1, Alessandro Cappellani2, Maria Di Vita2, Salvatore Berretta2, Guglielmo Nasti3, Alessandra Bearz6, Umberto Tirelli 1, Vincenzo Canzonieri4
1Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute Aviano (Pn), 2 Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, 3 Department of Colorectal Oncology/Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation Naples, 4Division of Pathology, National Cancer Institute Aviano
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Here we review the role of clinical biomarkers (tissue and circulating markers) in the management of neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors may originate in different organs, from cells embriologically different but expressing common phenotypic characteristics, such as the immuno-reactivity for markers of neuroendocrine differentiation (defined as "pan-neuroendocrine"), the capacity to secrete specific or aspecific peptide and hormones, and the expression of some receptors, that are at the basis of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approach.