[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 1169-1188, June 1, 2010]

Important roles of Akt/PKB signaling in the aging process

Miaozong Wu 1,2,3, Bin Wang 4, Jia Fei 5, Nalini Santanam 5, Eric R. Blough1,2,3,5

1Cell Differentiation and Development Center, 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Exercise Science, Sport and Recreation, 4Department of Chemistry, 5Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Marshall University, Huntington WV, 25755

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Regulation of Akt and its signaling in aging process
3.1. Akt / protein kinase B
3.2. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the skeletal muscle
3.2.1. Aging impairs skeletal muscle structure and function
3.2.2. Role of Akt singling in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis
3.2.3. Role of Akt signaling in regulating glucose uptake into muscle
3.2.4. Is aging associated with the post-translational modification of Akt?
3.3. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the skeletal system
3.4. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the cardiovascular system
3.4.1. Role of Akt in cardiac aging
3.4.2. Role of Akt in vascular aging
3.5. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the neuronal system
3.5.1. Age-associated changes of Akt signaling in neuronal system
3.5.2. PI3K / Akt signaling pathway and Alzheimer's disease
3.6. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the respiratory system
3.7. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the digestive system
3.8. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the immune system
3.9. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the urinary system
3.10. Potential role of Akt in the aging of the adipose tissue
4. Conclusions and prospective view
5. Acknowledgements
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

The increased costs associated with an ever-growing aged population are expected to pose a significant burden on health care resources. From a biological standpoint, aging is an accelerated deteriorative process in tissue structure and function that is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The Akt / protein kinase B (PKB) is a family of serine / threonine protein kinases, which play prominent roles in a diverse number of processes including cell survival, cell growth, gene expression, apoptosis, protein synthesis, energy metabolism and oncogenesis. It is likely that age-related changes in tissue structure and function are related to alterations in Akt expression and Akt-dependent signaling. Here we review the role that Akt may play in the aging process and attempt, where possible, to highlight how these data may lead to new directions of inquiry and clinical relevance to the aged.