[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 1113-1126, June 1, 2010]

MicroRNA in human cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases

Jagat R. Kanwar, Ganesh Mahidhara, Rupinder K. Kanwar

BioDeakin, Institute for Technology and Research Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, Technology Precinct, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. miRNA biogenesis and function
3.1. miRNA in human cancer
3.2. miRNA in diabetes and metabolic diseases
3.3. miRNA in neurodegenerative diseases
3.4. miRNA in angiogenesis, chronic inflammation and vascular diseases:
3.5. miRNA in viral infections
4. Role of microRNA in anticancer drug resistance.
5. Summary and perspective
6. Acknowledgements
7. References


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the non-coding RNAs that act as post-translational regulators to their complimentary messenger RNAs (mRNA). Due to their specific gene silencing property, miRNAs have been implicated in a number of cellular and developmental processes. Also, it has been proposed that a particular set of miRNA spectrum is expressed only in a particular type of tissue. Many interesting findings related to the differential expression of miRNAs in various human diseases including several types of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases have been reported. Deregulation of miRNA expression in different types of human diseases and the roles various miRNAs play as tumour suppressors as well as oncogenes, suggest their contribution to cancer and/or in other disease development. These findings have possible implications in the development of diagnostics and/or therapeutics in human malignancies. In this review, we discuss various miRNAs that are differentially expressed in human chronic inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and the further prospective development of miRNA based diagnostics and therapeutics.