[Frontiers in Bioscience S2, 801-814, June 1, 2010]

Polymer- and liposome-based nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery

Subbu S.Venkatraman, Lwin Lwin Ma, Jayaganesh V. Natarajan, Sujay Chattopadhyay

School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore-639798

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Nanoparticulates: structure, preparation and characterization
3.1. Polymeric nanoparticles
3.1.1. Milling
3.1.2. Emulsion methods
3.2. Polymeric Nanomicelles
3.3. Liposomes
3.4. Dendrimers
4. Applications I: targeted cancer chemotherapy
4.1. Active and passive targeting
4.2. Liposomal Delivery
4.2.1. Doxil
4.2.2. Liposomal systems in pre-clinical and clinical phases
4.3. Polymeric nanomicelles
4.3.1. Clinical candidates
4.3.1.1. NK105
4.3.1.2. NC-6004
4.3.1.3. NK911
4.3.2. Other nanomicelle systems and studies
4.3.3. A comparison of liposomes and nanomicelles: areas for future research
4.4. Nanoparticles with dispersed drug
5. Applications II: intracellular delivery
5.1. Gene Delivery
5.1.1. Status
6. Other applications and prognosis
7. Abbreviations
8. Acknowledgements
9. References

1. ABSTRACT

This review focuses on polymer- and liposome-based nanoparticles used in targeted delivery of bioactive molecules, from drugs to siRNA to pDNA. The perspective centers around commercial and clinical successes, and a rationalization of these successes. Microparticulate systems are not covered, and only those applications that truly utilize the advantages of nano size are covered. "Stealth" systems dominate in this review, as most of the clinical successes are for passive targeting rather than for active targeting of tissue. The relevance of nano size to gene delivery is also discussed with relevant examples.