[Frontiers in Bioscience E1, 52-59, June 1, 2009]

Clinical manifestations of pediatric idiopathic hypercalciuria

Keith K. Lau1

1Keith K. Lau, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, 2516 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817, U.S.A.


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Clinical manifestations
3.1. Asymptomatic
3.2. Hematuria
3.2.1. Macroscopic hematuria
3.2.2. Microscopic hematuria
3.3. Lower urinary tract symptoms
3.3.1. Urinary frequency-urgency
3.3.2. Incontinence/nocturnal enuresis
3.3.3. Recurrent colicky abdominal pain
3.3.4. Recurrent urinary tract infection
3.4. Nephrolithiasis
3.5. Nephrocalcinosis
3.6. Bone demineralization
4. Summary and perspectives
5. References


Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is a common metabolic disorder in children with protean manifestations, many of which can mimic other common pediatric diseases. Reports in the medical literature describe children with IH presenting with a wide array of calculi and non-calculi related clinical symptoms such as hematuria, urinary tract infections (UTIs), urgency, urinary incontinence and recurrent abdominal pain. Many of these symptom complexes have been only loosely associated with IH with no definite established causal relationship. Due to the common nature of IH and the varied clinical features attributed to it, it is of utmost importance for health-care professionals to be aware of these; this will facilitate early and appropriate investigations and prompt institution of therapy to avoid long-term morbidity.