[Frontiers in Bioscience E1, 306-315, June 1, 2009]

Complications of hypercalciuria

Andrew Schwaderer1, Tarak Srivastava2

1Division or Nephrology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, 2Bone and Mineral Disorder Clinic, The Children's Mercy Hospital and Clinics, University of Missouri at Kansas City

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. Overview of calcium metabolism
2.2. Regulation of calcium metabolism as it relates to hypercalciuria
2.3. Subtypes of idiopathic hypercalciuria
2.4. Genetics of hypercalciuria
3. Clinical consequences of hypercalciuria
3.1. Hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis
3.2. Hypercalciuria and hematuria
3.3. Hypercalciuria and voiding symptoms and abdominal pain
3.4. Hypercalciuria and urinary tract infection
3.5. Hypercalciuria and bone mineral density
3.6. Hypercalciuria and Hypertension
4. Approach and management of hypercalciuria
5. Summary
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a common disorder in children and can present with a range of clinical presentations such as hematuria, voiding dysfunction, flank pain, abdominal pain, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infection and decreased bone mineral density. In the review below we provide a brief overview of calcium metabolism, types and clinical consequences of hypercalciuria and a brief approach to evaluation and management of hypercalciuria.