[Frontiers in Bioscience E1, 299-305, June 1, 2009]

Treatment strategies for pediatric idiopathic hypercalciuria

Keith Kwong Lau 1, Lavjay Butani 2

1 Keith Kwong Lau, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, 2516 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817, U.S.A., 2 Lavjay Butani, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, 2516 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817, U.S.A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Dietary modifications
3.1. Fluid intake
3.2. Calcium
3.3. Sodium
3.4. Animal protein
3.5. Potassium
4. Pharmacological treatments
4.1. Thiazide diuretics
4.2. Citrate
4.3. Bisphosphonates
5. Management issues: Team approach
5.1. Dietitian
5.2. Pediatric nephrologist
5.3. Patients and families
6. Prognosis
7. Summary and perspectives
8. References

1. ABSTRACT

Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is a common metabolic disorder in children and is associated with the development of renal calculi, nephrocalcinosis, hematuria and osteopenia. The effect of various dietary modifications and available pharmacologic therapies on reducing urinary calcium excretion and/or urinary supersaturation is discussed in this article. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving the patient, their families, and health-care professionals is also addressed.