[Frontiers in Bioscience 14, 1642-1660, January 1, 2009]

Can we prevent parkinson's disease?

Christine R. Swanson1,2, Samantha L. Sesso1, Marina E. Emborg1,2,3

1Preclinical Parkinson's Research Program, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center; 2Neuroscience Training Program, 3Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI


1. Abstract
2. Introduction
2.1. Defining Parkinson's disease (PD)
2.2. PD demographics
2.3. Cause vs. risks and mechanisms of cell death in PD
3. Increasing the odds of developing PD: Risk Factors
3.1. Aging
3.2. Genetics
3.3. Environmental factors
3.4. Head Trauma
3.5. Comorbidities
4. Searching for Neuroprotective Factors
4.1. Exercise
4.2. Food and dietary supplements
4.3. Caloric restriction
4.4. Nicotine
4.5. Anti-inflammatory compounds
4.6. Calcium modulators
4.7. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors B (MAOB)
4.8. Estrogen
4.9. Trophic factors
4.10. Other potential neuroprotective factors
5. Conclusion and perspectives
6. Acknowledgments
7. References


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 million people in the United States. Although the cause of PD remains unknown, a number of factors that increase the risk of developing this disease have been identified. Other factors that may prevent or slow down PD development and progression have also been found. In this review, we describe current basic, clinical and epidemiological findings on risk and neuroprotective factors and discuss how they can affect PD.