[Frontiers in Bioscience 14, 769-795, January 1, 2009]

Neural interactions with materials

Paul Donald Dalton 1, 2, Joerg Mey 3

1Deutsche Wollforschungsinstitut, Pauwelstr. 8 Aachen, Germany 52056, 2Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, 3Institute of Biology II, RWTH-Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 16, Germany

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Interactions between neurons and their environment in vivo
3.1. Physiological processes after PNS- and CNS-lesions
3.1.1. Inflammatory reaction
3.1.2. Axonal growth
3.1.3. Formation of the glial scar
3.1.4. Neuroglial interactions
3.2. The cellular environment
3.2.1. Microglia and macrophages in the CNS
3.2.2. Macrophages in peripheral nerves
3.2.3. Astrocytes
3.2.4. Olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells
3.2.5. Oligodendrocytes, meninges and synantocytes
3.3. The molecular environment
3.3.1. Neurotrophins
3.3.2. Cytokines and chemokines
3.3.3. Hormones and retinoic acid
3.3.4. Extracellular matrix
4. Interactions between neurons and materials in vitro
4.1. Biologically derived materials
4.1.1. Laminin
4.1.2. Collagen
4.1.3. Fibrin
4.1.4. Matrigel™
4.1.5. Fibronectin
4.1.6. Agarose
4.1.7. Alginate
4.2. Synthetic and biohydrid materials
4.2.1. Puramatrix™
4.2.2. Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
4.2.3. Poly (alpha-hydroxy acids)
4.2.4. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
4.2.5. Poly (pyrrole)
4.3. Heterogeneous materials, scaffolds and oriented matrices
4.3.1. Patterned surfaces
4.3.2. Fibres
4.3.3. Three dimensional structures
4.3.4. Channelled scaffolds
4.3.5. Isothermal crystallization
5. Conclusion
6. References

1. ABSTRACT

This article focuses on cell-material interactions of neurons in the context of nerve regeneration and tissue engineering applications. In this review, the cellular and molecular environment of neurons is described in both the uninjured and injured tissue. The interactions between specific materials and neurons is explained, in addition to heterogeneous substrates and guiding scaffolds that are used experimentally.