[Frontiers in Bioscience 14, 665-688, January 1, 2009]

Enhancing oxygen solubility using hemoglobin- and perfluorocarbon-based carriers

Valerie Centis1, Patrick Vermette1,2

1Laboratoire de Bioingenierie et de Biophysique de l'Universite de Sherbrooke, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, boul. de l'Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1, 2Research Centre on Aging, Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Sherbrooke, 1036, rue Belvedere sud, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H 4C4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. The hemoglobin protein
3.1. Porphyrin structure
3.2. Oxygen affinity
3.3. Hill coefficient and P50
3.4. CO2 transport
4. Hemoglobin derivatives
4.1. Reduced hemoglobin
4.2. Oxyhemoglobin
4.3. Carboxyhemoglobin
4.4. Methemoglobin
4.4.1. Limiting methemoglobin formation
5. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC)
5.1. Cross-linking of hemoglobin
5.1.1. Salicyl derivatives
5.1.2. Pyridoxal phosphate derivatives
5.2. Polymerisation of hemoglobin
5.2.1. Glutaraldehyde
5.2.2. O-raffinose
5.3. Conjugation of macromolecules to hemoglobin
5.3.1. Conjugation of dextran to hemoglobin
5.3.2. Conjugation of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to hemoglobin
5.4. Encapsulation of hemoglobin
5.4.1. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin
5.4.2. Hemoglobin encapsulated in PEG-bearing liposomes
5.4.3. Polymer-micro-encapsulated hemoglobin
6. Perfluorochemicals
6.1. General characteristics
6.2. Synthesis
6.3. Gas solubilities
6.3.1. Oxygen
6.4. Surfactants to stabilize PFC emulsions
6.4.1. Poloxamer-based surfactants
6.4.2. Phospholipid-based surfactants
6.4.3. Fluorinated surfactants
6.4.4. Molecular dowels
6.5. Emulsification procedures
6.5.1. Sonication
6.5.2.Microfluidization
6.5.3.High-pressure homogenization
6.6.PFC emulsion stability
6.6.1.Ostwald ripening
6.6.2.Coalescence
6.6.3.Flocculation
6.7. mulsion rheology
7. Summary and perspective
8. Acknowledgements
9. References

1. ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to review the properties of fluids capable to enhance oxygen transport and transfer and recent developments in this field. This paper reviews and compares two different approaches, which could be used to solve the important problem of oxygen supply in some cell and tissue cultures: 1) hemoglobin-based and 2) perfluorocarbon-based (PFC) oxygen carriers. Several types of modified hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and their preparation are reviewed, as well as advances in the field of PFC oxygen carriers. Finally, we highlight the advantages and pitfalls, when reported in the literature, associated with each technique.