[Frontiers in Bioscience 2, d88-125, March 1, 1997]

Table of Conents
 Previous Section   Next Section


Bianca Marchetti

Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Laboratory of Biotech. Neuropharmacology, OASI Institute for Research and Care (IRCCS) on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging (IRCCS) Troina, (EN), Italy.

Received 8/2/96; Accepted 2/20/97; On-line 3/1/97


1. R. Virchow: Ueber das granulierte Ansehen der Wandungen der Gehirnventrikel. Allgem Z Psychiatrrie, Psych Med 3, 242-250 (1846)

2. R. Virchow: Ueber eine im Geehirn und Ruckenmark des Menshen der Cellulose. Arch Pathol Anat Physiolk Klin Med 6, 135-138 (1854)

3. Y. Ramon, S. Cajal: Sobre un nuevo proceder de impregnacion de la neuroglia y sus resultados en los centros nerviosos del hombre y animales. Trab Lab Invest Biol Univ Madrid 11, 219-237 (1913)

4. H. Van der Lons: The history of the neuron and neuronal connectivity. In: The Centennial of the Neuron. Eds: Costa E, Judd LL, Leshner AL, Abstracts, Fidia Res. Foundation, Washington, DC 3, (1991)

5. D.B. Tower: A century of neuronal-glial interactions, and their pathological implications: an overview. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG. Progr Brain Res, vol 94, 3-18, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam (1992)

6. R. Galambos: A glial-neural theory of brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 47, 129-136 (1961)

7. S.V. Kuffler & J.C. Nichols: The physiology of neuroglial cells. Ergeb Physiol 57, 1-90 (1966)

8. L. Hertz & A. Schousboe: Role of astrocytes in compartmentalization of aminoacid and energy metabolism . In: Astrocytes. Vol 2: Biochemistry, Physiology and Pharmacology of Astrocytes. Eds: Federoff S, and Vernadakis A. Academic Press, Orlando, 179-208 (1986)

9. A. Vernadakis: Neuron-glia interrelations. Int Rev Neurobiol 30, 149-224 (1988)

10. A.B. Barres: A new form of transmission? Nature 339, 343-344 (1989)

11. J. Kimelberg, O'Connor: Swelling of astrocytes causes membrane potential depolarization. Glia 1, 219-224 (1988)

12. A.C.H. Yu, L. Hertz, M.D. Noremberg, E. Sykova & S. Waxman: Neuronal-astrocyte Interactions: Implication for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Progr Brain Res, vol 94, 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers, (1992).

13. S.G. Smith: Do astrocytes process neural information ?. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG. Progr Brain Res, vol 94, Elsevier Science Publishers, 119-136 (1992)

14. D. Attwell: Glia and neurons in dialogue. Nature 369, 707-708 (1994)

15. G. Blackenfield, K. Enkvist & H. Kettenmann.: Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Ransom BR & Kettenmann H, Oxford University Press, New York Oxford, 335-345 (1995)

16. M.S. Cooper: Intercellular signaling in neuronal-glial networks. Biosystems 34, 65-85 (1995)

17. B. Ransom & H. Kettenmann: Neuroglia, Oxford University Press, New York (1995)

18. C. Golgi: Di una una nuova reazione apparentemente nera delle cellule nervose cerebrali ottenuta col bicloruro di mercurio. Archivio per Scienze Mediche 11, 1-7 (1879)

19. M. Lenhossek: Der Feinere Bau des Nervensystem im Lichster Neuster Forshungen. Ficher/ Kornfeld, Berlin 179-180 (1895)

20. M.C. Raff, E.R. Abney, J. Cohen, R. Lindsay & M. Noble: Two types of astrocytes in culture of developing rat white matter. Differences in morphology, surface gangliosides, and growth characteristics. J Neurosci 3, 1289-1300 (1983)

21. J. Travis: Glia: The brain's other cells. Science 266, 970-972 (1994)

22. H. Sontheimer & J.M. Richie: Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenmann H, Ransom B.R. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 246-258 (1995)

23. S. Duffy, D.D. Fraser & B.A. MacVicar: Potassium channels . In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenmann H, Ranson BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 185-201 (1995)

24. B. Ranson: Glial modulation of neural excitability mediated by extracellular pH: a hypothesis In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG Progr Brain Res, vol 94, 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers, 37-46 (1992)

25. E. Sykiova, J. Svoboda, Z. Simonova & P. Jendelova: Role of astrocytes and volume homeostasis in spinal cord during development and injury. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG Progr Brain Res, vol 94, Elsevier Science Publishers, 47-56 (1992)

26. H.S. White, G.A. Skee & J.A. Edwards: Pharmacological regulation of astrocytic calcium channels: implications for the treatment of seizure disorders. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG Progr Brain Res, vol 94, 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers, 77-85 (1992)

27. K.T. Ng, M.E. Gibbs, C.L. Gibbs, G. Sedman, E. Sykova, J. Svobova, P. Jendelova, B. O'Dowd, N. Rickard & S.F. Crowe: Ion involvement in memory information: a potential role of astrocytes. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz MD, Noremberg E, Sykiova E, Waxman SG Progr Brain Res, vol 94, 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers, 90-109 (1992)

28. A. Schousboe & N. Westergaard: Transport of neuroactive aminoacids in astrocytes. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 246-258 (1995)

29. S. Murphy & G. Welk: Arachidonic acid evokes inositol phospholipids hydrolysis in astrocytes. FEBS Lett 257, 68-70 (1989)

30. R.P.D. Kraig, Christopher & A. Caggiano: Glial response to brain ischemia. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, 964-976 (1995)

31. C.M. Muller: Glial cells and activity-dependent central nervous system plasticity. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 805-814 (1995)

32. E.N. Benveniste: Cytokine production. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford 700-716, (1995)

33. E.N. Benveniste: Cytokines: Influence on glial cell gene expression. In: Neuroimmunoendocrinology, Ed: Blalock JE, Chem Immunol. Basel, Karger, Basel vol 52, 106-153 (1992)

34. D. Giulian: Microglia, cytokines, and cytotoxins: modulators of cellular responses after injury to the central nervous system. J Immunol Immunopharmacol 10, 15-21 (1990)

35. D. Giulian: Microglia and disease of the nervous system. Curr Top Neurol 12, 23-54 (1992)

36. F. Hefti: Growth factors and neuron degeneration. In: Neurodegenerative Diseases. Ed: Calne DB, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 177-194 (1994)

37. E.G. McGeer & P.L. McGeer: Neurodegeneration and the immune system. In: Neurodegenerative Diseases. Eds: Calne DB, W.B. Saunders Company Press, Harcour Brace, pp. 277-299 (1994)

38. D. Giulian: Microglia and neuronal dysfunction. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 671-684 (1995)

39. A.H. Cross, B. Cannella, C.F. Brosnam & C.S. Raine: Hypothesis: Antigen-specific T-cells prime central nervous system endothelium for recruitment of non specific inflammatory cells to affect autoimmune demyelination. J Neuroimmunol 33, 237-244 (1991)

40. H. Wekerle: Antigen presentation by central nervous system glia. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 685-699 (1995)

41. F. Gallo, M.C. Morale, R. Avola & B. Marchetti: Cross-talk between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons and astroglial cells : developing glia release factors that accelerate neuronal differentiation and stimulate LHRH release from the GT1 cell line and LHRH neurons stimulate astroglia proliferation. Endocrine J 3, 863-874 (1995)

42. F. Gallo, M.C. Morale, Z. Farinella, R. Avola & B. Marchetti: Growth factors released from astroglial cells in primary culture participate in the crosstalk between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons and astrocytes: Effects on LHRH neuronal proliferation and secretion. Ann NY Acad Sci 784, 513-516 (1996)

43. B. Marchetti: The LHRH-astroglial network of signals as a model to study neuroimmune interaction: assessment of messenger systems and transduction mechanisms at cellular and molecular levels. Neuroimmunomodulation 3, 1-27 (1996).

44. F. Gallo, R. Avola, A. Beaudet & B. Marchetti: Basic FGF is a major neurotrophic signaling agent during LHRH neuron-astroglia interactions: bFGF priming sensitizes LHRH neurons to growth factor neurotrophic effects. 26th Ann. Meet. Soc. Neurosci., Washington, 16-21 November, vol 2, Abst. 624.2 (1996)

45. M.E. Hatten, M. Lynch, R.E. Rydel, J. Sanchez, S.J. Joseph, D. Moscatelli & D.B. Rifkin: In vitro neurite extension by granule neurons is dependent upon astroglial-derived fibroblast growth factor. Dev Biol 125, 280-289 (1988)

46. M.E. Hatten: Riding the glial monorail: a common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the developing mammalian brain. Trends Neurosci 13, 179-184 (1990)

47. M.E. Hatten: The role of neuronal migration in central nervous system neuronal development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3, 38-44 (1993)

48. P. Rakic: Neuron-glia interactions during brain development. Trends Neurosci 4, 184-187 (1981)

49. B. Voutsinos, L. Chouaf, P. Mertens, P. Ruitz-Flandles, Y. Joubert, M.F. Belin & M. Didier-Bazes: Tropism of serotoninergic neurons towards glial targets in the rat ependyma. Neuroscience 59, 663-672


50. A. Faissner & M. Schachner: Tenascin and Janusin: glial recognition molecules involved in neural development and regeneration. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, 411-426 (1995)

51. F. Hefti: Nerve growth factor promotes survival of septal cholinergic neurons after fimbrial transection. J Neurosci 6, 2155-2162 (1986)

52. F. Hefti, J. Hartikka & B. Knusel: Function of neurotrophic factors in the adult and aging brain and their possible use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurobiol Aging 10, 515-533 (1989)

53. H.K. Klimelberg, D. Pang & D.H. Trebble: Excitatory aminoacid-stimulated uptake of 22Na+ in primary astrocyte cultures. J Neurosci 9, 1141-1149 (1989)

54. R. Avola, D.F. Condorelli, S. Surrentino, L. Turpeenoja, A. Costa & A.M. Giuffrida Stella: Effect of epidermal growth factor and insulin on DNA, RNA, and cytoskeletal protein labeling in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. J Neurosci Res 19, 230-238 (1988)

55. R. Avola, S. Reale, A. Costa, L. Insirello, V. Spina-Purrello & A.M. Giuffrida-Stella: Effects of bFGF and IGF-I on polyadenylated RNA and non-histone chromosomal protein labeling in cultured astrocytes. J Neurochem 61, 200-210 (1993)

56. D. F. Condorelli, F. Ingrao, G. Magrý, V. Bruno, F. Nicoletti & R. Avola : Activation of Excitatory aminoacids receptors reduces thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation rate in primary cultures of astrocytes. Glia 2, 67-69 (1989)

57. A. Arenander & J. deVellis: Early response gene induction in astrocytes as a mechanism for encoding and integrating neuronal signals. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Implications for Normal and Pathological CNS Function. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz L, Norenberg MD, Syková E, Waxman S (Eds) Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 177-188 (1992)

58. M. Sensenbrenner: The neurotrophic activity of fibroblast growth factors. Progr Neurobiol 41, 683-704 (1993)

59. G. Labourdette & M. Sensenbrenner: Growth factors and their receptors in the central nervous system. in: Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenman H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press 441-459 (1995)

60. M. Sendtner: Growth factors and their receptors in the central nervous system. In: Neuroglia. Eds: Kattenmann H, Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 427-440, (1995)

61. W.H. Burges & T. Maciag: The heparin-binding (fibroblast) growth factor family of proteins. Ann Rev Biochem 58, 575-606 (1989)

62. A. Baird & P. Bohlen: Fibroblast growth factors. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 95, Peptide Growth Factors and their Receptors I. Eds: Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Spring-Verlag Berlin, 369-418 (1990)

63. A. Baird & A.M. Gonzalez: Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in the pituitary potential activity and potential significance. In : Molecular and Clinical Advances in Pituitary Disorders. Ed: S. Melmed, Endocrine Research and Education, Inc., Los Angeles, 115-119 (1993)

64. R. Elde, Y. Cao & A. Cintra: Prominent expression of fibroblast growth factor in motor and sensory neurons. Neuron 7, 349-364 (1991)

65. J. Kandell, E. Bossy-Wetsel & F. Radvanyi: Neovascularization is associated with a switch in the export of bFGF in the multistep development of fibrosarcoma. Cell 66, 1095-1104 (1991)

66. E. Rouoshalti & Y. Yamaguchi: Proteoglycans as modulators of growth factor activities. Cell 64, 867-869 (1991)

67. A. M. Gonzalez, A. Logan, W. Ying, D. A. Lappi, M. Berry & A. Baird: Fibroblast growth factor in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis: differential expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and a high affinity receptor. Endocrinology 134, 2289-2297 (1994)

68. W. R. Woodward, R. Nishi & C.K. Meshul: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic localization of basic fibroblast growth factor in astrocytes and CA2 hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 12, 142-152 (1992)

69. P.A. Walicke & A. Baird: Internalization and processing of basic fibroblast growth factor by neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci 11, 2249-2258 (1991)

70. G. Ferrari, M.C. Minozzi, G. Toffano, A. Leon & S.D. Skaper: Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the survival and development of mesencephalic neurons in culture. Dev Biol 133, 140-147 (1989)

71. B. Knussel, P.P. Michel, J. Scwaber & F. Hefti: Selective and non-selective stimulation of central cholinergic and dopaminergic development in vitro by nerve growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II. J Neurosci 10, 558-570 (1990)

72. J. Engele & M.C. Bohn: The neurotrophic effect of fibroblast growth factors on dopaminergic neurons in vitro are mediated by mesencephalic glia . J Neurosci Res 30, 359-371 (1991)

73. J. Engele, D. Schubert & M.C. Bohn: Conditioned media derived from glial cell lines promote survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro: role of mesencephalic glia. J Neurosci Res 30, 359-371 (1991)

74. E. Mayer, S.B. Dunnet & J.W. Fawcett: Mitogenic effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on embryonic ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurone precursors. Dev Brain Res 72, 253-258 (1993)

75. M.M. Bouvier & C. Mytilineou: Basic fibroblast growth factor increases division and delays differentiation of dopamine precursors in vitro. J Neurosci 15, 7141-7149 (1995)

76. D. Zhou & M. Di Figlia: Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances the growth of postnatal neostriatal GABAergic neurons in vitro. Exp Neurol 122, 171-188 (1993)

77. P.M. Sweetman, H.R. Sanon & L.A. White: Differential effects of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors on spinal cord cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. J Neurosci 57, 237-249 (1991)

78. D. Casper, C. Mytilneou & M. Blum: EGF enhances the survival of dopamine neurons in rat embryonic mesencephalon primary cell culture. J Neurosci Res 30, 372-381 (1991)

79. M. Spranger, D. Lindholm & C. Bandtlow: Regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis in the rat central nervous system: comparison between the effects of interleukin 1 and various growth factors in astrocytes culture in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 2, 69-76 (1990)

80. W. Gerdes, W. Barysh, K.H. Schlingensiepen & W. Seifert: Antisense bFGF oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit DNA synthesis of rat astrocytes. Neuroreport 3, 43-46 (1992)

81. C. Gensburger, G. Labourdette & N. Sensenbrenner: Brain basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates the proliferation of rat neuronal precursor cells in vitro. FEBS Lett 217, 1-5 (1987)

82. M.K. Dehamer, J.L. Guevara, K. Hannon, B.B. Olwin & A.L. Calof: Genesis of olfactory receptor neurons in vitro: regulation of progenitor cell divisions by fibroblast growth factors. Neuron 13, 1083-1097 (1994)

83. R.E. Petrowski, J.P. Grierson, S. Choui-Kwon & H.M. Geller: Basic fibroblast growth factor regulates the ability of astrocytes to support hypothalamic neuronal survival in vitro. Dev Biol 147, 1-13 (1991)

84. G. Carpenter & S. Cohen: Epidermal growth factor. J Biol Chem 265, 7709-7712 (1990)

85. P.H. Patterson & H. Nawa: Neuronal differentiation factors/cytokines and synaptic plasticity. Neuron 10, 123-127 (1993)

86. X. Du, N.D. Stull & L. Iacovitti: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor works coordinately with partner molecules to initiate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in striatal neurons. Brain Res 680, 229-233 (1995)

87. P. Nissley & Y. Lopaczynski: Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Growth factors 5, 29-43 (1991)

88. P.H. Daughaday & P. Rotwen: Insulin-like growth factor I and II. Peptide mRNA and gene structures, serum and tissue concentrations. Endocr Rev 10, 68-91 (1989)

89. D.R. Clemmons: Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Trends Endocrinol Metab 1, 412-417 (1990)

90. C.A. Conover, J.T. Clarkson & L.K. Bale: Insulin-like growth factor II enhancement of human fibroblast growth via a non-receptor-mediated mechanism. Endocrinology 135, 76-82 (1994)

91. C.A. Bondy: Transient IGF-I gene expression during the maturation of functionally related central projection neurons. J Neurosci 11, 3442-3455 (1991)

92. E. Recio-Pinto, M.M. Rechel & D.N. Ishi: Effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor and nerve growth factor on neurite formation and survival in cultured sympathetic and sensory neurons. J Neurosci 6, 1211-1219 (1986)

93. V.K.M. Han, A. Smith, W. Myint, K. Nygard & S. Bradshaw: Mitogenic activity of epidermal growth factor on newborn astroglia: Interaction with insulin-like growth factors. Endocrinology 131, 1134-1142 (1992)

94. V.K.M. Han, J.M. Lauder & E.J. D'Ercole: Characterization of somatomedin/insulin-like growth factor receptors and correlation with biological actions in cultured rat astroglial cells. J Neurosci 7, 501-511 (1987)

95. R. Ballotti, F.C. Nielsen, N. Pringle, A. Kowalski, W.D. Richardson, E. Van Oberghen & S. Gammeltoft: Insulin-like growth factor I in cultured rat astrocytes expression of the gene and receptor tyrosine kinase. EMBO J 6, 3633-3639 (1987)

96. C.D. Torran-Allerand, W. Bentham, R.C. Miranda & J.P. Anderson: Insulin influences astroglial morphology and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression in organotypic cultures. Brain Res 1, 558-296-304 (1991)

97. L.M. Garcia-Segura, S. Luquin, A. Parduez & F. Naftolin: Gonadal hormone regulation of glial fibrillary acid protein immunoreactivity and glial ultrastructure in the rat neuroendocrine hypothalamus. Glia 10, 59-69 (1994)

98. L.M. Garcia-Segura, J.A. Chowen, M. Duenas, I. Torres-Aleman & F. Naftolin: Gonadal steroids as promoters of neuro-glial plasticity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 19, 445-453 (1994)

99. L.M. Garcia-Segura, I. Torres-Aleman & F. Naftolin: Astrocytic shape and fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity are modified by estradiol in primary rat hypothalamic cultures. Dev Brain Res 47, 298-302 (1989)

100. C.D. Torran-Allerand, L. Ellis & K.H. Pfenninger: Estrogen and insulin synergism in neurite growth enhancement in vitro: mediation of steroid effects by interactions with growth factors ? Dev Brain Res 41, 87-100 (1988)

101. G. Olmos, F. Naftolin, J. Perez, P.A. Tranque & L.M. Garcia-Segura: Synaptic remodeling in the rat arcuate nucleus during the estrous cycle. Neuroscience 32, 663-667 (1989)

102. M.C. Langub Jr & R.E. Watson Jr: Estrogen receptor-immunoreactive glia, endothelia, and ependima in guinea pig preoptic area and median eminence: electron microscopy. Endocrinology 130, 364-372 (1992)

103. F. Naftolin, C. Leranth, J. Perez & L.M. Garcia Segura: Estrogen induces synaptic plasticity in adult primate neurons. Neuroendocrinology 57, 935-939 (1993)

104. I. Yung-Testas, Z.Y. Hu, E.E. Beaulieu & P. Robel: Neurosteroids: biosynthesis of pregnenolone and progesterone in primary cultures of rat glial cells. Endocrinology 125, 2083-2091 (1989)

105. I. Yung-Testas, J.M. Renoir, J.M. Gasc & E.E. Beaulieu: Oestrogen-inducible progesterone receptor in primary cultures of rat glial cells. Exp Cell Res 193, 12-19 (1991)

106. I. Yung-Testas, J.M. Renoir, H. Brugnard, G.L. Greene & E.E. Beaulieu: Demonstration of steroid hormones receptor and steroid action in primary cultures of rat glial cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 41, 3-8 (1992)

107. M. Duenas, S. Luquin, S. Chowen, I. Torres-Aleman, F. Naftolin & L.M. Garcia-Segura: Gonadal hormone regulation of insulin-like growth factor I-like immunoreactivity in hypothalamic astroglia of developing and adult rats. Neuroendocrinology 59, 528-538 (1994)

108. J.K. Hiney, S.R. Ojeda & W. Lees Dees: Insulin-like growth factor I: A possible metabolic signal involved in the regulation of female puberty. Neuroendocrinology 54, 420-423 (1991)

109. J.M.H.M. Reul & E.R. DeKloet: Two receptor systems for corticosterone in rat brain: microdistribution and differential occupation. Endocrinology 117, 2505-2511 (1985)

110. S. Kumar & J. deVellis: Glucocorticoid-mediated functions in glial cells. In: Glial Cell Receptors. Ed: Kimelberg H.K., Raven Press, New York, 243-264 (1988)

111. Y. Chou, W.G. Luttge & G. Sumnersa: Expression of mineralcorticoid type I and glucorticoid type II receptors in astrocyte glia as a function of time in culture. Dev Brain Res 61, 55-61(1991)

112. B. Pearce & G.P. Wilkin: Eicosanoids, purine, and hormone receptors. In: Neuroglia. Eds: H. Kattenmann and B.R. Ransom, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 377-386 (1995)

113. J.P. O'Kallagan, R. Brinton & B.S. McEwen: Glucorticoids regulate the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein throughout the brain. Brain Res 494, 159-161

114. M. Aronsson, K. Fuxe, Y. Dong, L. Agnati, L.F. Ockret & J.A. Gustafsson: Localization of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA by in situ hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85, 9331-9335


115. B. Marchetti, F. Gallo, M.C. Morale, M. Cioni, Z. Farinella & R. Avola: Glucocorticoid-growth factor interactions during maturation and differentiation of astroglial cell in primary culture. 25th Annual Meeting Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, California, Abs. 128.10, 1, 305 (1995)

116. S. Murphy, G. Bruner & M.L. Simmons: The role of polyphosphoinositides in agonist-evoked release of vasoactive factors from astrocytes. In: Neuronal-Astrocytic Interactions. Eds: Yu ACH, Hertz L, Norenberg MD, Syková E, Waxman S, Elsevier Science Publishers BV, Amsterdam, 153-162 (1992)

117. B. Pearce & G. P. Wilkin: Eicosanoieds, purine and hormone receptors. In : Neuroglia. Eds: Kettenmann H Ransom BR, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 377-386 (1995)

118. S. Murphy, R.L. Minor, G. Welk & D.G. Harrison: CNS astroglial cells release nitrogen oxides with vasorelaxant properties. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17, S265-S268 (1991)

119. S. Murphy, M.L. Simmons, L. Agullo, A. Garcia, D.L. Feinstein, E. Galea, D.J. Reis, D. Minc-Colomb & J.P. Schwartz: Synthesis of nitric oxide in CNS glial cells. Trends Neurosci 16, 323-328 (1993)

120. D. Aharoni, A. Dantes & A. Amsterdam: Cross-talk between adenylate cyclase activation and tyrosine phosphorylation leads to modulation of the actin cytoskeleton and to acute progesterone secretion in ovarian granulosa cells. Endocrinology 133, 1426-1436 (1993)

121. R. Asakai, Y. Akita, K. Tamura, N. Kenmotsu & Y. Aoyama: Protein kinase C-dependent down-regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) receptor by phorbol ester and epidermal growth factor in porcine granulosa cells. Endocrinology 136, 3470-3479 (1995)

122. R.C. Baxter & J.L. Martin: Binding proteins for the insulin-like growth factors: structure, regulation and function. Prog Growth Factor Res 1, 49-68 (1989)

123. L. Kornberg & R.L. Juliano: Signal transduction from the extracellular matrix: the integrin-tyrosine kinase connection. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13, 93-95 (1992)

124. M. Spranger, D. Lindholm & C. Bandtlow: Regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis in the rat central nervous system: comparison between the effects of interleukin 1 and various growth factors in astrocytes culture in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 2, 69-76 (1990)

125. P.K. Haugen & P.C. Letourneau: Interleukin 2 enhances chick and rat sympathetic, but not sensory neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci Res 25, 443-452 (1990)

126. M. Kamegai, K. Niikima & T. Kunishta: Interleukin 3 as a trophic factor for central cholinergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Neuron 2, 429-436 (1990)

127. T. Hama, Y. Kushima & M. Miyamoto: Interleukin 6 improves the survival of mesencephalic catecholaminergic and septal cholinergic neurons from post-natal, two-week-old rats in cultures. Neuroscience 40, 445-452 (1991)

128. M.E. Barish, N.B. Mansdof & S.S. Raissdana: Gamma interferon promotes differentiation of cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Dev Biol 144, 412-429 (1991)

129. J.E. Blalock: Neuroimmunoendocrinology. Ed: Blalock JE, Chem Immunol Karger Basel, 52 (1992)

130. J.E. Blalock: Shared ligands and receptors as a molecular mechanism for communication between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ann NY Acad Sci 741, 292-298 (1994)

131. W. Pierpaoli & N.H. Spector: Neuroimmunomodulation: Interventions in Aging and Cancer, Ann NY Acad Sci 719, (1994)

132. W. Pierpaoli: The pineal gland as ontogenetic scanner of reproduction, immunity, and aging. The aging clock. Ann NY Acad Sci 741, 46-49

133. B. Marchetti, M.C. Morale, V. Guarcello, N. Cutuli, F. Raiti, N. Batticane, G.Jr. Palumbo, Z. Farinella & U. Scapagnini: Crosstalk communication in the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis: age-dependent alterations in the common communication networks. Ann NY Acad Sci USA 594, 309-325 (1990)

134. B. Marchetti, M.C. Morale, V. Guarcello, N. Cutuli, F. Gallo & U. Scapagnini: The neuroendocrine-immune connections in the control of reproductive functions. In: Major advances in human female reproduction. (E.Y. Adashi and S. Mancuso, Eds). Serono Symposia Publications from Raven Press 73, 279-289 (1990)

135. B. Marchetti, A. Peiffer, M.C. Morale, N. Batticane, F. Gallo, & N. Barden: Transgenic animals with impaired type II glucocorticoid receptor expression: a model to study aging of the neuroendocrine immune system. Ann NY Acad Sci 719, 308-327 (1994)

136. M.C. Morale, N. Batticane, F. Gallo, N. Barden & B. Marchetti: Disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system in transgenic mice expressing type glucocorticoid receptor antisense ribonucleic acid permanently impairs T-cell functions: effects on T-cell trafficking and T-cell responsiveness during post-natal maturation. Endocrinology 136, 3949-3960 (1995)

137. B. Marchetti, F. Gallo, Z. Farinella, R. Avola & M.C. Morale: Neuroendocrineimmunology (NEI) at the turn of the century: towards a molecular understanding of basic mechanisms and implications for reproductive physiopathology. Endocrine 3, 845-861 (1995)

138. B. Marchetti, F. Gallo, Z. Farinella & M.C. Morale: Unique neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) interactions during pregnancy. In : The Physiology of Immunity., M. Kendal and J. Marsh, Eds, CRC Press, London, 297-328 (1996)

139. B. Marchetti, F. Gallo, C. Romeo, Z. Farinella & M.C. Morale: The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors in the neuroendocrine immune network: biochemical bases and implications for reproductive physiopathology. Ann NY Acad Sci 784, 209-236 (1996)

140. S.M. McCann, L. Milenkovic, M.C. Gonzalez, K. Lyson, S. Karnth & V. Rettori: Endocrine aspects of neuroimmunomodulation: Methods and overview In: Neurobiology of Cytokines, Part A, Vol 16, Methods in Neurosciences, E.B. de Souza, Ed, San Diego, Academic Press, 187-210 (1993)

141. S.M. McCann, S. Karanth, A. Kamat, W. LesDees, K. Lyson, M. Gimeno & V. Rettori: Induction by cytokines of the pattern of pituitary hormone secretion in infection. Neuroimmuno-modulation 1, 2-13 (1994)

142. A. Calzolari: Recherches experimentales sur un rapport probable entre la fonction du thymus et celle des testicules. Arch Ital Biol (Tor) 307, 71-76 (1989)

143. H.O. Besedowski & E. Sorkin: Thymus involvement in sexual maturation. Nature 249, 356-359 (1974)

144. W. Pierpaoli & H.O. Besedowski: Interdependence of the thymus in programming neuroendocrine functions. Clin Exp Immunol 20, 323-329 (1975)

145. C.J. Grossman: Regulation of the immune system by sex steroids. Endocr Rev 5, 435, 1984.

146. Farookhi, R., Wesolowski, E., Trasler, J. M. and Robairg, B.: Modulation by neonatal thymectomy of the reproductive axis in male and female rats during development. Biol Reprod 27, 1267 (1988)

147. B. Marchetti, V. Guarcello & U. Scapagnini: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRH-A) binds to lymphocytes and modulates the immune response. In: Biology and Biochemistry of Normal and Cancer Cell Growth, Eds: Castagnetta L, and Nenci I, Harwood Academic Press, London, 149-152 (1988)

148. B. Marchetti: Involvement of the thymus in reproduction. Progr Neuroendocrin Immunol 2, 64-69 (1989)

149. B. Marchetti, V. Guarcello, G. Triolo, M.C. Morale, Z. Farinella & U. Scapagnini: Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) as Natural Messenger in Neuro-Immune-Endocrine Communications. In: Interactions among CNS, Neuroendocrine and Immune Systems. Eds: Hadden J W, Masek K, and Nistic˛ G, Pythagora Press, Rome-Milan, 127-146, (1989)

150. B. Marchetti, V. Guarcello, M.C. Morale, G. Bartoloni, G.jr. Palumbo, F. Raiti, N. Cutuli, Z. Farinella & U. Scapagnini: A physiological role for the neuropeptide luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) during the maturation of thymus gland function. Intern J Neurosci 51, 287-289 (1990)

151. C.J. Grossman: Are there underlying immune-neuroendocrine interactions responsible for immunological sexual dimorphism? Progr Neuroendocrinimmunol 3, 75-80 (1990)

152. M.C Morale, N. Batticane, G. Bartoloni, V. Guarcello, Z. Farinella, M.G. Galasso & B. Marchetti: Blockade of central and peripheral luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors in neonatal rats with a potent LHRH-antagonist inhibits the morphofunctional development of the thymus and maturation of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Endocrinology 128, 1073-1085 (1991)

153. C. Rivier: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, gonadotropins, and gonadal steroids in stress. Ann NY Acad Sci 771, 187-191 (1995)

154. S.S. Stojilkovic, J. Reinhart & K.J. Catt: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors: structure and signal transduction pathways, Endocr Rev 15, 462-498 (1994)

155. E. Knobil & J. Hotchkiss: The menstrual cycle and its neuroendocrine control. In: The Physiology of Reproduction. Eds: Knobil E, and Neill J, Raven Press, New York, 1971-1994 (1988)

156. S.P. Kalra: Mandatory neuropeptide-steroid signaling for the preovulatory luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone discharge. Endocr Rev 14, 507-538 (1993)

157. R.I. Weiner, W. Wetsel, P. Goldsmith, G. Martinez De La Escalera, J. Windle, C. Padula, A. Choi, A. Negro-Vilar & P. Mellon: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cell lines. Front Neuroendocrinol 13, 95-119 (1992)

158. G. Martinez De La Escalera, A.L.H. Choi & R.I. Weiner: Generation and synchronization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses: intrinsic properties of the GT1-1 GnRH neuronal cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 1852-1855 (1992)

159. L.Z. Krsmanovic, S.S. Stojilkovic, L.M. Mertz, M. Tomic & K.J. Catt: Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and autocrine regulations of neuropeptide release in immortalized hypothalamic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 3908-3912 (1993)

160. C. Rivier & W. Vale: In the rat interleukin acts at the level of the brain and the gonads to interfere with gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion. Endocrinology 124, 2105-2109 (1989)

161. S.P. Kalra, A. Sahu & S.P. Kalra: Interleukin-1 inhibits the ovarian steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge and release of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rats. Endocrinology 126, 2145-2152 (1990)

162. C. Rivier: Role of endotoxins and interleukin-1 in modulating ACTH, LH, and sex steroid secretion. In: Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine Function. Eds: Porter JC, and Jezova D, New York, Plenum, vol 274, 295-301 (1990)

163. M. Yamaguchi, K. Koike, Y. Yoshimoto, N. Matsuzaki, A. Miyake & O. Tanizawa: Interleukin-6 stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion from rat hypothalamic cells. Horm Res 35, 252-256 (1991)

164. V. Rettori, M.F. Gimeno, A. Karara, M.C. Gonzalez & S.M. McCann: Interleukin-1a inhibits prostaglandin E2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88, 2763-65 (1991)

165. V. Rettori, N. Belova, A. Kamat, K. Lyson & S.M. McCann: Blockade by interleukin-1 a of the nitricoxidergic control of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro. Neuroimmunomodulation 1, 86-91 (1994)

166. S. Rivest, S. Lee, B. Attardi & C. Rivier: The chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of interleukin-1ß alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of cycling rats. Effect on LHRH and gonadotropin biosynthesis and secretion, Endocrinology 133, 2424-28 (1993)

167. K.M. Ataya, W. Sakr, C.M. Blacker, M.A. Mutchnick & Z.A. Latif: Effect of GnRH agonists on the thymus in female rats. Acta Endocrinol 121, 833-838 (1989)

168. B.D. Greenstein, F.T.A. Fitzpatrick, M.D. Kendall & M.J. Wheeler: Regeneration of the thymus in old male rats treated with a stable analogue of LHRH. J Endocrinol 112, 345-348 (1987)

169. B. Marchetti, V. Guarcello, M.C. Morale, G. Bartoloni, Z. Farinella, S. Cordaro & U. Scapagnini: Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) binding sites in the rat thymus: Characteristic and biological function. Endocrinology 125, 1025-1036 (1989)

170. B. Marchetti, V. Guarcello, M.C. Morale, G. Bartoloni, F. Raiti, G.Jr. Palumbo, Z. Farinella, S. Cordaro & U. Scapagnini: Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) agonist restoration of age associated decline of thymus weight, thymic LHRH receptors, and Thymocyte proliferative capacity, Endocrinology 125, 1037-1045 (1989)

171. N.V. Emanuele, M.A. Emanuele, J. Tentler, L. Kirsteins, N. Azad & A.M. Lawrence: Rat spleen lymphocytes contain an immunoactive and bioactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Endocrinology 126, 2482-2486 (1990)

172. N. Azad, N.V. Emanuele, M.M. Halloran, J. Tentler & M.R. Kelley: Presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) mRNA in rat spleen lymphocytes. Endocrinology 128, 1679-1681 (1991)

173. N. Batticane, M.C. Morale, F. Gallo, Z. Farinella & B. Marchetti: Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Signaling at the Lymphocyte Involves Stimulation of Interleukin-2 Receptor Expression, Endocrinology 128, 277-286 (1991)

174. J.D. Glass: A sequence related to the human gonadoliberin precursor near the N-termini of HIV and SIV gag polyproteins. J Theor Bio 150, 489-496 (1991)

175. C.C. Maier, B. Marchetti, R.D. LeBoeuf & J.E. Blalock: Thymocytes express a mRNA that is identical to hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone mRNA. Cell Mol Neurobiol 12, 447-450 (1992)

176. L.V. Rao, R.P. Cleveland & K.M. Ataya: Sequential changes in functional lymphocyte subpopulations during long term administration of GnRH agonist in postpubertal female mice. Endocrine J 1, 451-459 (1993)

177. N. Azad, N. La Paglia, K. Abel, J. Jurgens, L. Kirsteins, N.V. Emanuele, M. Kelley, A.M. Lawrence & N. Mohagheghpour: Immunoactivation enhances the concentration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone peptide and its gene expression in human peripheral T-lymphocytes. Endocrinology 133, 215-223 (1993)

178. F. Standaert, B.P. Chew, D. De Avila & J.J. Reeves: Presence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone binding sites in cultured porcine lymphocytes. Biol Reprod 46, 997-1000 (1992)

179. J.D. Jacobson, B.C. Nisula & A.D. Steinberg: Modulation of the expression of murine lupus by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Endocrinology 134, 2516-2523 (1994)

180. T.M. Wilson, L. Yu-Lee & M.R. Kelly: Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and the LHRH-receptor following prolactin stimulation in the rat Nb2 T cell line: Implications for a role in immunomodulation and cell-cycle gene expression. Mol Endocrinol (1995)

181. T. Takao & E. De Souza In: Receptors: Model Systems and Specific Receptors. P.M. Conn (Ed), Methods Neurosci Vol 11, Academic Press, Inc. 29-42.

182. B. L. Spangelo, A.M. Judd, R.M. MacLeod, D.W. Goodman, & P.C. Isaakson: Endotoxin-induced release of interleukin-6 from rat medial basal hypothalami. Endocrinology 127, 1779-1785 (1990)

183. R.C. Silverman, M.J. Gibson & A.J. Silverman: Relationship of glia to GnRH axonal outgrowth from third ventricular grafts in hpg hosts. Exp Neurol 1991, 114, 259-274.

184. K. Sundaram, A. Didolkar, R. Thau, M. Chandhuri & F. Schmidt: Antagonists of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone bind to rat mast cells and induce histamine release. Agents Actions 25, 307-310, (1988)

185. A. Phillips, D.W. Hahn, J.L. McGuire, D. Ritchie, R.J. Capetola, C. Bowers & K. Folkers: Evaluation of the anaphylactoid activity of a new LHRH antagonist. Life Sci 43, 883-886 (1988)

186. S.R. Ojeda, H.F. Urbanski, M.E. Costa, D.F. Hill & M. Moholt-Siebert: Involvement of transforming growth factor a in the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone from the developing female hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87, 9698-9702 (1990)

187. Y.J. Ma, M.P. Junier, M.E. Costa & S.R. Ojeda: Transforming growth factor a gene expression in the hypothalamus is developmentally regulated and linked to sexual maturation. Neuron 9, 657-670 (1992)

188. S.R. Ojeda, G.A. Dissen & M.P. Junier: Neurotrophic factors and female sexual development. Front Neuroendocrinology 13, 120-162 (1993)

189. M.P. Junier, F.D. Hill, M.E. Costa, S. Felder & S.R. Ojeda: Hypothalamic lesions that induce female precocious puberty activate glial expression of epidermal growth factor receptor gene: Differential regulation of alternative spliced transcripts. J Neurosci 13, 703-71311 (1993)

190. S.R. Ojeda & H.F. Urbanski: Puberty in the rat. In: The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edition. Eds: Knobil E, Neill JD, Raven Press, New York, 363-409 (1994)

191. A. Negro-Vilar, D. Conte & M. Valenca: Transmembrane signals mediating neural peptide secretion: role of protein kinase C activators and arachidonic acid metabolites in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 119, 2796-2802 (1986)

192. S.R. Ojeda, H.F. Urbanski, K.H. Katz, M.E. Costa & P.M. Conn: Activation of two different but complementary biochemical pathways stimulates release of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 4932-4936 (1986)

193. W.C. Wetsel & A. Negro-Vilar: Testosterone selectively influences protein kinase-C-coupled secretion of proluteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-derived peptides. Endocrinology 125, 538-547 (1989)

194. J.M. Bruder, W.D. Krebs, T.M. Nett & M.E. Wierman: Phorbol ester activation of the protein kinase C pathway inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. Endocrinology 131, 2552-2558 (1992)

195. W.C. Wetsel, S.A. Eraly, D.B. Whytw & P.L. Mellon: Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone by protein kinase-A and -C in immortalized hypothalamic neurons. Endocrinology 132, 2360-2370 (1994)

196. K.L. Yu, T.T.S. Yeo, K.W. Dong, M. Jakubowski, C. Lackner-Arkin, M. Blum & J.L. Roberts: Second messenger regulation of mouse gonadotropin-hormone releasing hormone gene expression in immortalized mouse hypothalamic GT1-3 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 102, 85-92 (1994)

197. A.C. Gore, A. Ho & J.L. Roberts: Translational efficiency of gonadotropin releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid is negatively regulated by phorbol esters in GT1-7 cells. Endocrinology 136, 1620-1625 (1995)

198. M. Moretto, F.J. López & A. Negro-Vilar: Nitric oxide regulates Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone secretion. Endocrinology 133, 2399-2402 (1993)

199. J.J. Bonavera, A. Sahu, P.S. Kalra & S.P. Kalra: Evidence that nitric oxide may mediate the ovarian steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge: involvement of excitatory amino acids. Endocrinology 133, 2481-2487 (1993)

200. S.R. Viscent & H. Kimura: Histochemical mapping of nitric oxide synthase in rat brain. Neuroscience 46, 755-784 (1992)

201. S.H. Snyder: Nitric oxide: first in a new class of neurotransmitters? Science 257, 494-496 (1992)

202. M. Schwanzel-Fukuda & D.W. Pfaff: Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing neurons, Nature 338, 161-164 (1987)

203. M. Schwanzel-Fukuda & D.W. Pfaff: The migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons from the medial olfactory placode into the medial basal forebrain. Experientia 46, 956-962 (1990)

204. M. Schwanzel-Fukuda, S. Abraham, K.L. Crossin, G.M. Edelman & D.W. Pfaff: Immunocytochemical demonstration of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) along the migration route of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons in mice. J Comp Neurology 321, 1-18 (1992)

205. M. Schwanzel-Fukuda, K.L. Jorgenson, H.T. Bergen, G.D. Weesner & D.W. Pfaff: Biology of normal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons during and after their migration from olfactory placode. Endocrine Rev 13, 623-634 (1992)

206. H. Kaikoku-Ischido, Y. Okamura, N. Yanahihara & S. Daikoku: Development of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-containing neuron system in the rat: In vivo and in transplantation studies. Dev Biol 140, 374-387 (1990)

207. R.B. Norgren & M.N. Lehman: Neurons that migrate from the olfactory epithelium in the chick express luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 128, 1676-1678 (1991)

208. R.B. Norgren, C. Gao, Y. Ji & B. Fritzsch: Tangential migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons in the medial telencephalon in association with transient axons extending from the olfactory nerve. Neurosci Lett 202, 1-4 (1995)

209. F.J. Kallmann, W.A. Schoenfeld & S.E. Barrera: The genetic aspects of primary eunuchoidism. Am J Ment Defic 48, 203-236 (1994)

210. W.F. Crawley & J.L. Jameson: Clinical counterpoint: gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency : Perspectives from clinical investigations. Endocr Rev 13, 635-640 (1992)

211. R.B. Norgren & R. Brackenbury: Cell adhesion molecules and the migration of LHRH neurons during development. Dev Biol 160, 377-387 (1993)

212. O.K. Ronnekleiv & J.A. Resko: Ontogeny of gonadotropin releasing-hormone -containing neurons in early fetal development of Rhesus macaques. Endocrinology 126, 498-511 (1990)

213. S. Wray, A. Nieburgs & S. Elkabes: Spatiotemporal cell expression of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the prenatal mouse: evidence for an embryonic origin in the olfactory placode. Dev Brain Res 46, 309-318 (1989)

214. S. Murakami, T. Sekim, K. Wakabayashi & Y. Arai: The ontogeny of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) producing neurons in the chick embryo : possible evidence for migrating LHRH neurons from the olfactory epithelium expressing a highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion. Mol Neurosci Res 12, 421-431 (1991)

215. S. Daikoku, I. Koide, M Chikamori-Aoyama & Y. Shimomura: Migration of LHRH neurons derived from the olfactory placode in rats. Arch Histol Cytol 56, 353-370 (1993)

216. S.A. Tobett, J.E. Crandall & G.A. Schwarting: Relationship of migrating luteinzing hormone-releasing hormone neurons to unique olfactory system glycoconiugates in embryonic rats. Dev Biol 155, 417-482 (1992)

217. K. Yoshida, S.A. Tobet, J.E. Crandall, T.P. Jimenez & G.A. Schwarting: The migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the developing rat is associated with a transient, caudal projection of the vomeronasal nerve. J Neurosci 15, 7769-7777 (1995)

218. A.J. Silverman: The Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal systems: immuno-cytochemistry. In: The Physiology of Reproduction. Eds: Knobil E and Neill JD, Raven Press, New York, 1283-1304 (1988)

219. I. Basco, P.L. Woodhams, F. Haljos & R. Balasz: Immunocytochemical demonstration of glial fibrillary acidic protein in mouse tanycytes. Anat Embryol 162, 217-222 (1981)

220. E. Horstmann: Die faserglial des selachiergehirns. Z Zellforsh 39, 588-617 (1954)

221. O.E. Millhouse: Light and electron microscopic studies of the ventricular wall. Z Zellfosch 127, 149-174 (1972)

222. G.P. Kozlowski & P.W. Coates: Ependymo-neuronal specializations between LHRH fibers and cells of the cerebroventricular system. Cell Tiss Res 242, 301-311 (1985)

223. R.C. Silverman, M.J. Gibson & A.J. Silverman: Relationship of glia to GnRH axonal outgrowth from third ventricular grafts in hpg hosts. Exp Neurol 114, 259-274. (1991)

224. G.I. Hatton, L.S. Perlmutter, A.K. Salm & C.D. Tweedle: Dynamic neuronal-glial interactions in hypothalamus and pituitary: implications for control of hormone synthesis and release. Peptides 5, 121-138 (1984)

225. J.C. King & R.J. Letourneau: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone terminals in the median eminence of rats undergo dramatic changes after gonadectomy, as revealed by electron microscopic image analysis. Endocrinology 134, 1340-1351 (1994)

226. S.G. Kohama, J.R. Goss, T.H. McNeill & C.E. Finch: Glial fibrillary protein increases at proestrus in the arcutae nucleus of mice. Neurosci Lett 183, 164-166 (1995)

227. P. Collado, C. Beyer, J.B. Utchison & S.D. Holman: Hypothalamic distribution of astrocytes is gender-related in Mongolian gerbils. Neurosci Lett 184, 86-89 (1995)

228. S.G. Kohama, J.R. Goss, C.E. Finch & T.H. McNeill: Increases of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the aging female mouse brain. Neurobiol Aging 16, 59-67 (1995)

229. N.R. Nichols, C.E. Finch & J.F. Nelson: Food restriction delays the age-related increase in GFAP mRNA in rat hypothalamus. Neurobiol Aging 16, 105-10 (1995)

230. J.K. McQueen & H. Wilson: The development of astrocytes immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein in the medio-basal hypothalamus of hypogonadal mice. Mol Cell Neurosci 5, 623-631 (1994)

231. P. Mellon, J. Windle, P. Goldsmith, C. Padula, J.L. Roberts & R.I. Weiner: Immortalization of hypothalamic GnRH neurons by genetically targeted tumorigenesis. Neuron 5, 1-10 (1990)

232. G. Martinez De La Escalera, F. Gallo, A.L.H. Choi & R.I. Weiner: Dopaminergic regulation of the GT1 gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal cell lines: stimulation of GnRH release via D1-receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Endocrinology 131, 2965-2971 (1992)

233. G. Martinez De La Escalera, A.L.H. Choi & R.I. Weiner: ß1-Adrenergic regulation of the GT1 GnRH neuronal cell lines: stimulation of the GnRH release via receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Endocrinology 131, 1397-1402 (1992)

234. Z. Liposits, I. Merchenthaler, W.C. Wetsel, J.J. Reid, P.L. Mellon, R.I. Weiner & A. Negro-Vilar: Morphological characterization of immortalized hypothalamic neurons synthesizing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 129, 1575-1583 (1991)

235. Zhou Jie, D.M. Holtzman, R.I. Weiner & W.C. Mobley: Expression of TrkA confers neuron-like responsiveness to nerve growth factor on an immortalized hypothalamic cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 3824-3828 (1994)

236. G. Martinez de La Escalera, A.L.H. Choi & R.I. Weiner: Signaling pathways involved in GnRH secretion in GT1 cells. Neuroendocrinology 61, 310-317 (1995)

237. J. Quian, M.S. Bull & P. Levitt: Target derived astroglia regulate axonal outgrowth in a region specific manner. Dev Biol 149, 278-294 (1992)

238. P.D. Le Roux & T.A. Reh: Regional differences in glial-derived factors that promote dendritic outgrowth from mouse cortical neurons in vitro. J Neurosci 14, 4639-4655. (1994)

239. P.D. LeRoux & T.A. Reh: Astroglia demonstrates regional differences in their ability to maintain primary dendritic outgrowth from mouse cortical neurons in vitro. J Neurobiol 27, 97-112 (1995)

240. L.C. Wang, D.H. Baird, M.E. Hatten & C.A. Mason: Astroglial differentiation is required for support of neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci 14, 3195-3207 (1994)

241. T. Minizuma, M. Sawada, A. Suzumura & T. Marunouchi: Expression of cytokines during glial differentiation. Brain Res 656, 141-146 (1994)

242. M. Noble, J. Fok-Seang & J. Cohen: Glia are unique substrate for the in vitro growth of central nervous system neurons. J Neurosci 4, 1892-1903 (1984)

243. M.E. Hatten: Riding the glial monorail: a common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the developing mammalian brain. Trends Neurosci 13, 179-184 (1990)

244. M.E. Hatten: The role of neuronal migration in central nervous system neuronal development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3, 38-44 (1993)

245. P. Doherty, D.E. Moolenaar, S.V. Ashton, R.J. Michalides & F.S. Walsh: Morphoregulatory activities of NCAM and N-cadherin can be accounted by G-protein-dependent activation of L- and N-type neurite Ca2+ channels. Cell 67, 21-33 (1991)

246. J.R. Fallon: Preferential outgrowth of central nervous system neurites on astrocytes and Schwann cells as compared with non glial cells in vitro. J Cell Biol 100, 198-207 (1985)

247. K.J. Tomaselli, K.M. Neugebauer, J.L. Bixby, J. Lilien & L.F. Reichardt: N-Cadherin and integrins: two receptor systems that mediate neuronal process outgrowth on astrocyte surface. Neuron 1, 33-43 (1988)

248. C.D. Stiles, G.T. Cappone, C.D. Scher, H.N. Antoniades, J.J. Van Wyk & W. J. Pledger : Dual control of cell growth by somatomedins and platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76, 1279-1283 (1979)

249. T.J. Killpatrick & P.F. Bartlett: Cloned multipotential precursors from the mouse cerebrum require FGF-2, whereas glial restricted precursors are stimulated with either FGF-2 or EGF. J Neurosci 15, 3653-3661 (1995)

250. T.J. Killpatrick & P.F. Bartlett: Cloning and growth of multipotential neural precursors : requirements for proliferation and differentiation. Neuron 10, 255-265 (1993)

251. S. Temple & X. Qian: bFGF, neurotrophins, and the control of cortical neurogenesis. Neuron 15, 249-252 (1995)

252. R.B. Campenot: NGF and the local control of nerve terminal growth. J Neurobiol 25, 599-611 (1994)

253. P.S. Tsai, S. Werner & R.I. Weiner: Basic fibroblast growth factor is a neurotropic factor in GT1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cell lines. Endocrinology 136, 3831-3838 (1995)

254. R. Westerman, C. Grothe & K. Unsicker: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a multifunctional growth factor in the developing and adult brainstem. J Cell Sci Suppl 13, 97-117 (1990)

255. D.M. Araujo & C.W. Cotman: Basic FGF in astroglial, microglial and neuronal cultures: characterization of binding sites and modulation of release by lymphokines and trophic factors. J Neurosci 12, 1668-1678 (1992)

256. P.H. Patterson & H. Nawa: Neuronal differentiation factors /cytokines and synaptic plasticity. Neuron 10, 123-127 (1993)

257. X. Du & L. Iacovitti: Synergy between growth factors and transmitters required for catecholalamine differentiation in brain neurons. J Neurosci 15, 5420-5427 (1995)

258. X. Du, N.D. Stull & L. Iacovitti: Novel expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene requires both acidic fibroblast growth factor and an activator. J Neurosci 14, 7688-7694 (1994)

259. N.Y. Ip, T.G. Boulton, Y. Li, J.M. Verdi, S.J. Birren, D.J. Anderson & G.D. Yacopulos: CNTF, FGF and NGF collaborate to drive the terminal differentiation of MAH cells into postmitotic neurons. Neuron 13, 443-455 (1994)

260. L. Kornberg & R.L. Juliano: Signal transduction from the extracellular matrix: the integrin-tyrosine kinase connection. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13, 93-95 (1992)

261. M.I. Chuah & C. Au: Olfactory Schwann cells in olfactory nerve are derived from precursors cells in the olfactory epithelium. J Neurosci Res 29, 172-180 (1991)

262. R.B. Norgren, N. Ratner & Brackenbury: Development of olfactory nerve glia defined by a monoclonal antibody specific for Schwann cells. Develop Syn 194, 231-238 (1992)

263. B. Franco, S. Guioli, A. Pragliola, B. Incerti, R. Tonlorenzi, R. Carrozzo, E. Maestrini, M. Pieretti, P. Taillon-Miller, C.J. Brown, H.F. Willard, C. Lawrence, M.G. Persico, G. Camerino & A. Ballabio: A gene deleted in Kalmann's syndrome shares homology with neural cell adhesion and axonal path-finding molecules. Nature 353, 529-536 (1991)

264. R. Legouis, J.P. Hardelin, J. Levilliers, J.M. Claverie, S. Compain, V. Wunderle, P. Milassean, D. LePaslier, D. Caterina, L. Bougueleret, H. Delemarre-Van de Waal, G. Lutfalla, G. Weissenbach & C. Petit: The candidate gene for the X-linked Kalmann's syndrome encodes a protein related to adhesion molecules. Cell 67, 423-435 (1991)

265. Y. Kinoshita, C. Kinoshita, J.G. Heuer & M. Bothwell: Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes adhesive interactions of neuroepithelial cells from chick neural tube with extracellular matrix proteins in culture. Development 119, 943-956 (1993)

266. Tessier-Lavigne: Axon guidance by diffusible repellents and attractants. Curr Opin Genet Dev 4, 596-601 (1994)

267. F.M. Reichman, B. Dickinson, E. Hafen & B.Z. Shilo: Elucidation of the role of breathless, a Drosophila FGF receptor homolog, in tracheal cell migration. Genes Dev 8, 428-439 (1994)

268. S. MacFarlane, L. McNeill & C.E. Holt: FGF signaling and target recognition in the developing xenopus visual system. Neuron 15, 1017-1028 (1995)

269. E.J. Williams, J. Furness, F.S. Walsh & P. Doherty: Activation of the FGF receptor underlines neurite outgrowth stimulated by L1, N-CAM, and N-cadherin. Neuron 13, 583-594 (1994)

270. D. Zhengshan & H.B. Peng: Presynaptic differentiation induced in cultured neurons by local application of basic fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci 15, 5466-5475 (1995)