[Frontiers in Bioscience 1, d248-265, September 1, 1996]
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Versions: 1996, 1999

XENOTRANSPLANTATION - STATE OF THE ART

D.K.C. Cooper, MA, PhD, MD, MS, FRCS, FACC, FACS

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA

Received 07/16/96; Accepted 08/12/96; On-line 09/01/96

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Concordant and discordant xenotransplantation
3.1. Definitions
3.2. Pathogenesis of graft rejection
3.3. Histopathology
3.4. Anti-Pig antibodies
4. Experimental methods of prolonging survival of concordant xenografts
5. Experimental methods of prolonging survival of discordant xenografts
5.1. Anti-Pig antibody depletion or inhibition
5.2. Complement depletion or inhibition
5.3. The development of tolerance to donor species by mixed chimerism
5.4. The genetically engineered pig
5.4.1. Expression of human complement-inhibiting proteins
5.4.2. alphaGal 'Knockout'
5.4.3. Competitive glycosylation
6. Discussion
7. References
8. Entire manuscript

Key words: xenotransplantation, hyperacute rejection, anti-pig antibodies, anti-agalactosyl antibodies, complement, mixed chimerism, genetic engineering